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Psychological Effects On Crowding, Population Density And Noise

1653 words - 7 pages

The variety of effects on individuals stimulates from population density and noise. The effects could range from easy annoyances to critical intrusive anxiety creating illnesses. When personal space, privacy, and territory are infringed upon by people or short lived and continuous noises; (Straub, 2007) accommodations become needed in acknowledging to prevent psychological effects of crowding as well as discouraging aggression, anxiety, and frustration with the ongoing increase in population density, territory, personal space, and privacy.
Privacy is defined as an individual selectively controlling access to one’s self or a group (Altman, 1977). Privacy entails the reigns of privileged ...view middle of the document...

Territoriality of humans involves several aspects of preventative and reaction behavior including observations, the allowance and protection of places, objects, individuals, and indications of verbal cues, and atmosphere prop actions in retort to the original or implicated occurrence of others and the properties of environment reaction as well as meant to fulfill specific main and minor motivational conditions of people or clusters (Edney, 1974).
However animal territoriality is survival base, it is different with individuals, which retain space by certain actions that conclude a specific area is in use or owned. Although, humans have the potential to become aggressive and attack and maintain other inner actions against intrusion for example women demonstrate these qualities when their pregnant or have had a baby. Ecological variable is suggested by research as the primary factors in defining territoriality and becomes necessary to adhere the tendency to protect resources as an issue of maximizing territoriality in humans (Dyson-Hudson & Smith, 1978). As resources become critical because of limitations, individuals look to guard personal belongings and personal space.
There was a study done by John Calhoun and Straub (2007) references that the experiment completed on population density was using rats living conditions for research. In the research it was discovered that the living quarters for rats was large and the behaviors exhibited was standard, but when the population enlarged their social surroundings weakened. It appears that the rats became aggressive, territorial, mortality of baby rats spiked sharply, reproduction space lessened, and some rats began eating other rats. However, these behaviors founded does not mean that it is likely to occur in humans, but sort of similar circumstances the population density has specific basic effects on populace.
The population density contributes to psychological effects of gathering causing individuals to be restrained and restricted with minimal access to supplies. It has been proven that crowding is connected to behaviors related to aggression, maximized criminal activity, social withdrawal, and unsuitable social connections (Stokols, 1972). To minimize crowding as a problem it becomes necessary to reserve privacy, honor territory, and personal space as an essential human need. In order to avoid psychological affects there needs to be greater acknowledgement as resources of personal space decrease as well as privacy. When personal space and privacy diminish individuals feel as though he or she has no control, increased competition, and tendency to respond negatively to subtle irritations (Straub, 2007).
The perception mechanism is revealing to population density if enough space is allowed than the crowding aspect shrinks. Consequently, modifying the outlook of space is important as giving more space. Straub (2007) states that the crowding aspect is not unavoidable, if one...

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