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Psychological Perspectives Essay

728 words - 3 pages

Psychodynamic approach
Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality was the first and main influence for the development of Psychodynamic perspectives. Freud discussed about instincts, anxiety, and defense mechanism, levels of personality, structure of personality and psycho sexual developments of a child. Freud believed, the childhood experiences will affect to lead the future life. Freud’s psychotherapy is called psychoanalysis. After Freud’s personality theory was developed by neo Freudians like Carl Jung and Alfred Adler, Anna Freud. Carl Jung focused on the ego, the personal unconscious and collective unconscious, extraversion and introversion and archetypes. Alfred Adler presented the ideas ...view middle of the document...

(Frager, and Fadiman 2005).
According to a research of American college students (based on Alfred Adler’s inferiority idea) adults who are with low on inferiority level will be more successful in life and more self confident than the adults who are with high inferiority levels.(Schultz, and Schultz 2005).

Behavioral perspective
John B. Watson founded behaviorism in 1913. Watson argued scientist should only use observable behaviors for their studies. “Little Albert” was an experimental study which is designed by Watson to describe the connection between infants and anxiety. John Locke proposed infants are born with a state called “tabula rasa”. Ivan Pavlov’s the study of salvation of dog’s accidently lead him to introduce classical conditioning to explain human behaviors. B.F.Skinner proposed operant conditioning believed human actions are controlled by reinforcement and punishments. Albert Bandura demonstrated children learn by imitating their parents behaviors through the BoBo Doll experiment and proposed human learning is controlled by attention, retention, reproduction and motivation.
Behaviorism theories based on observable ideas, which can test and analyze and provide practical solutions. Therefore behaviorism is still rooted in the present and used in various areas such as education, business and marketing, politics and law.
Pavlov’s...

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