Psychological Research Into Individual Differences In Attachment

1019 words - 4 pages

Psychological Research into Individual Differences in Attachment

"An attachment is a close relationship between two persons,
characterised by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity"
(Schaffer 1993). When you are attached to someone, you enjoy their
company and are distressed when they are not there. The most common
attachment researched is between a baby and its caregiver.

Ainsworth et al (1978) researched secure and insecure attachments
using the 'Strange Situation'. This was to research individual in
attachment and to see what types of attachment were formed between the
mother and baby. One year old babies were observed during seven
episodes to find evidence of separation protest and stranger anxiety.
The seven episodes, each lasting 20 minutes, involved the baby and
mother together, the baby left with the stranger, the mother and baby
reunited, the baby left in the room alone, the baby and the stranger
again, and a final reunion between the mother and baby. Most of the
attention was given to the baby so that its reunion behaviours could
be monitored.

Ainsworth found that the attachment behaviours could be classified
into three types. The strength of the attachment was directly related
to how sensitive a mother was to her child's needs.

65%-70% of the babies were securely attached, where they were
distressed when the mother left them and were uncomfortable with the
stranger.

10%-12% of the babies were categorised as 'anxious-resistant'. They
showed distress when the mother had left and were insecure in the new
room, but showed anger towards the mother and stranger. The care giver
was inconsistent and misunderstood the child's behaviour, leading the
child to be hostile towards them.

Care givers of 'anxious-avoidant' types (20%-23%) were either
disinterested, self centred and rigid or were suffocating. The child
behaved indifferently towards the mother and stranger and avoided the
mother when she returned. They could be comforted by the stranger.
They only showed distress when they were left in the room by
themselves.

This showed that the mother's sensitivity in an essential factor to
determine the strength of the child's attachment. The more sensitive a
mother is towards her child's needs the more secure the child is
attached. The less sensitive a mother is, the more insecure her child
would be (either anxious-avoidant or anxious-resistant).

The positive criticisms for Ainsworth's study was said to be an
important study in the history of attachment research, and that
several more recent studies have shown that parental sensitivity
causes attachment security.

The negative criticisms for this research was that...

Find Another Essay On Psychological Research into Individual Differences in Attachment

Biological and Social Gender Differences in action: a brief research into whether gender plays a role in decision making.

1899 words - 8 pages thrown into one pot and said that each will respond to a situation the same way as the other? Or, could it be argued that gender in fact does play a role in how someone will act/react to a situation, and therefore should be taken into account when evaluating one's actions? To achieve these ends, we must look at the two most fundamental factors which form a human being's behavior: Biology and Society (Nature/Nurture). With both we can also show

Implications of individual differences in the context of work teams.

910 words - 4 pages studied the relationship between personality characteristics and problem-solving strategies (Heppner, Neal, & Larson, 1984; Hopper & Kirschenbaum, 1985; Myers, 1980), with Jung's (1971) theory on psychological type serving as the basis for much of this work, especially as measured by the MBTI (Myers & McCaulley, 1985). It is important to consider the individual differences in problem solving and decision making to adequately understand

The Psychological Differences between Men and Women in Sports

1960 words - 8 pages . According to the article in the Gendered Society Reader titled, "A Social-Psychological Model of Gender" by Kay Deaux and Brenda Major gender based behavior can be broken down into nearly predictable elements. Deaux and Major believe that there are three main elements that determine why males and females act as they do when they are around members of the opposite sex. These elements were: 1.) The man and the woman have different conceptions of

Consider the Extent to which Psychological Theories have been Successful in Explaining Attatchments - Bowlby's Theory of Attachment

1050 words - 4 pages : "The Nature of the Child's Tie to His Mother" (1958), "Separation Anxiety" (1959), and "Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early Childhood" (1960).According to Bowlby infants have an innate tendency to become attached to one particular individual. This was referred to as monotropy. During his research Bowlby observed how infants who became separated from their primary caregiver, such as it's mother, would go to extraordinary lengths to either

Consider psychological research into the effects of day care on children's cognitive and/or social development

514 words - 2 pages "While day care is being increasingly used by parents, it is still nuclear what its precise effects are on a child's development are."Consider psychological research into the effects of day care on children's cognitive and/or social developmentCognitive development is the growth and development of a child's mental processes. The effects on the cognitive development of children who go to day care are mainly positive especially in boys who benefit

The Use of Non-Human Animals in Psychological Research

825 words - 3 pages The Use of Non-Human Animals in Psychological Research Animals used in research have proved to be an important factor for the uses of medicine, for example Flemming found the use of penicillin was an effective antibiotic when it was used on mice. Since 1822, legislation has limited how scientists use animals. In the UK, the use of animals in psychological investigations has been constrained by ethical and moral

Individual Differences in Workers Preparedness to Manage Boring or Monotonous Situations.

2237 words - 9 pages ). This stems from the idea that in order for an individual to perform well on a job, their characteristics and that of the job have to match (Murphy, 1996 as cited in Kaplan & Tetrick, 2011). Because of its important implications for selection extensive research exploring individual differences in BP has been conducted. However, individual differences are only one dimension of boredom: Researcher have argued that boredom is a multilevel construct

Differences in Qualitative and Quantitative Research methods for business

662 words - 3 pages There are two different methods for collecting data. There is Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research. Let's come up with some ideas on how to perform each method and brainstorm on different tools we can use. We will need to be aware of the pros and cons attached to each method as well. To get the conversation started here are my ideas and suggestions.First, I wanted to point out the differences in these methods. Qualitative research is

“Individual differences in ‘mentalizing’ in humans are mediated by variations in oxytocin-related neuronal signalling”. How convincing is this view?

2003 words - 9 pages theory of mind and also imply that the eyes provide information about the mental states of an individual. It is believed that increase in social perception ability leads to increase in inference ability of the others’ mental states. After knowing the relationship between social comprehension and mentalizing, another question arises, “Why individual differences in mentalizing are observed in Human if the theory of mind is correct?” This may be

Should Animals be used in invasive Laboratory techniques in psychological research

1525 words - 6 pages heredity traits can be applied to genetic factors. Different strains of mice are caged together to see how they react to different stimuli and experiences. Primates are also used within psychological research due to their behaviours being very similar to humans. Chimpanzees for example have been involved in experiments such as insight into problems. They would be presented with a problem that had a solution and where then observed as to how they would

What claims have been made about the differences in psychological functions performed by the left versus right hemispheres of the brain? .

877 words - 4 pages theory was born known as the two-brain theory. This said that at different times one of the two hemispheres would be operating. An example of this is that the right hemisphere is in control when an artist paints but the left hemisphere was in control when a novelist wrote a book. This theory failed because of one physical studies showed that people with hemispheres surgically disconnected could operate in everyday life. Also, research demonstrated

Similar Essays

Outline And Evaluate Psychological Research Into Individual Differences In Attachment.

3039 words - 12 pages hypothesis that individual differences in attachment style can be stable across significant periods of time and yet there are circumstances when they remain open to revision.Even though this particular longitudinal study shows correlation between the attachment styles given at 12 months and their stability over time, it is questionable as to whether or not attachment style is stable across people. Research has shown that although an infant may have a

Individual Differences In Experiments Essay

2107 words - 8 pages In the previously mentioned research measures, the experimenters paid little attention to the fact that the individuals participating may differ on their performance in experimental tasks due to a variety of personal differences. A lot has already been said about individual differences in the beginning of this essay, essentially research in individual differences may be able to guide us in making a best guess at who might be better or worse than

Describe And Evaluate Research Into Attachment And/Or Sociability In The First Few Years Of Life

1879 words - 8 pages attachment figure(s) so that they are able to function as independent adults. Reduces distress and promotes emotional development and development of the self-image.Research has shown that babies exhibit sociable behaviours almost from birth - long before they have formed an attachment. Moreover research has shown that sociability is not a sudden process but instead a gradual one that develops in six consecutive stages involving behaviours that

Recognition Of Individual Differences In The Classroom

2391 words - 10 pages Recognition of Individual Differences in the Classroom Recognition of individual differences is one of the hardest jobs that a teacher faces in the classroom. It requires a strong sense of instinct as well as the knowledge of characteristics of each of the specific differences. Without this, the teacher is unable to fulfill their job to the best of their ability because they are denying the students an environment in