Psychology Essay

1810 words - 7 pages

CHAPTER 44.1 Sensation is the process by which sense organs gather information about the environment and transmit it to the brain for initial processing. Perception is the related process by which the brain selects, organizes, and interprets sensations. The basic senses are visual, auditory (hearing), olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste), tactile (touch), and proprioception (the sense of the body's position and motion).4.2 Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the psychological experience of them. Three basic principles apply across all the senses: There is no one-to-one correspondence between physical and psychological reality; sensation and perception are active, not passive; and sensory and perceptual processes reflect the impact of adaptive pressures over the course of evolution.4.3 All senses have these features in common: they translate information, have thresholds, require constant decision making, detect changes, and are selective. Sensation begins with an environmental stimulus; all sensory systems have specialized cells called sensory receptors that respond to environmental stimuli and typically generate action potentials in adjacent sensory neurons. The process of converting stimulus information into neural impulses is called transduction. Within each sensory modality, the brain codes sensory stimulation for intensity and quality.4.4 The absolute threshold is the minimum amount of energy needed for an observer to sense that a stimulus is present. The difference threshold is the lowest level of stimulation required to sense that a change (just noticeable difference or "jnd") in stimulation has occurred. According to Weber's law, regardless of the magnitude of two stimuli, the second must differ by a constant proportion from the first for it to be perceived as different. According to Fechner's law, the magnitude of a stimulus grows logarithmically as the subjective experience of intensity grows arithmetically so that people subjectively experience only a fraction of actual increases in stimulation. According to Stevens's power law, subjective intensity increases in a linear fashion as actual intensity grows exponentially. Sensory adaptation is the tendency of sensory systems to respond less to stimuli that continue without change. Psychophysiologists are using cognitive augmentation (which involves detecting sensation intensity) to increase the challenge of video games and increase alertness in military personnel.4.5 The stimuli of the visual system are light waves (measured in nms); wavelength is experienced as hue (color) and wave height as brightness. Two basic processes occur in the eyes: Light is focused on the retina by the cornea, pupil, and lens, and the retina transduces this visual image into a code that the brain can read. The fovea, in the central region of the retina, is where vision is the sharpest, except for the blind spot where the optic nerve leaves the eye. The retina includes two...

Find Another Essay On Psychology

psychology Essay

976 words - 4 pages Chapter 2      This article is from the April 2003 issue of Psychology Today. In chapter 2, behavior is the main topic. Behavior is a bit unexplainable , but it can be put into form of patterns or predictions. Also, behavior is uncontrolled, but can be changed to a small degree with the use of medicine or a good diet. This article “Fighting Crime One Bite At A Time” tells how a good diet can maybe decrease the number

Psychology Essay

770 words - 4 pages Psychology, as most know, is the study of the mind and personal or group thoughts, feelings, and emotions in humans and animals. Scientists study, analyze, and investigate many areas of psychology, but the causes and effects of mood disorders and emotion irregularities are still unrecognized. Many studies were an attempt to find more information on mental illnesses. One of the most common illnesses in the United States is depression, also; it is

psychology

1355 words - 5 pages specifically to the psychoanalytic theory proposed by Sigmund Freud and his followers. While Freud's theories of the structure and dynamics of human personality strongly predict human action, they are not without limitation. Over the years, much of the new research into personality psychology has brought many of Freud's original propositions into question. These objections raise issues with many of Freud's theories and methods including his singular focus

Psychology

753 words - 4 pages Psychology Assignment Psychodynamic Approach According to Psychodynamic theorists human behaviour is determined by past childhood experiences as well as both unconscious and subconscious inner thoughts and feelings. The development of our personality takes place in stages, complications at any stage of our development is understood to have significant consequences on our future behaviour. Psychodynamic approach considers all behaviours to be

Psychology

1164 words - 5 pages Santos 1 Thais Santos. Professor Heintz Psychology 225-1RA 1 May 2014 TITLE The divorce rate in the United States is the highest in the world.The American Psychological Association reports that roughly 40 to 50 percent of marriages in the United States end in divorce. This means that one out of every two marriages today ends in divorce and many divorcing families include children. Parents who are getting a divorce are frequently worried about

psychology

4039 words - 16 pages Correlates, Journal of Applied Psychology, No. 74, 1989, pp. 130 - 135.Dowling P.J.; Schuler R.S.; Welch D.E., International Dimensions of Human Resource Management, Belmont, Wadsworth, 1994.Francesco A.M.; Gold B.A., International Organizational Behavior, Prentice Hall, 1998.Gomez - Mejia L. R.; Balkin D. B.; Cardy R. L., Managing Human Resources, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, 1995.Gomez - Mejia L. R.; Balkin D. B., The determinants of

psychology

7056 words - 28 pages Institute, Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Madrid; Carmen De la Cuesta-Benjumea, MSc, PhD, RN, Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante; Olga Monistrol-Ruano, MSc, RN, Research Associate, Nursing Research Area, Mu´tua de TerrassaUniversityHospital, Terrassa;VinitaMahtani-Chugani,MD, PhD, Research Associate, Canary Islands Health Care Services, Primary Care Management Tenerife

Humanistic Psychology - Psychology - Essay

554 words - 3 pages Humanistic Psychology In modern psychology there are 6 main schools of thought for studying the Human Condition they are psychoanalytical, cognitive, behavioral, biological, socio-cultural, and humanistic. While each approach is valid humanistic is by far the best as it studies the whole person and not just one aspect of them; like the brain, or their environment. It focuses on the behavior through the eyes of the subject and not just the

Social Psychology

1695 words - 7 pages There are many explanations for the origins of modern social psychology. It is therefore important to consider that social psychology cannot be traced back to one single source of origin (Burr, 2003). Hence, this is the reason why there are debates of what social psychology is. Allport (1985) described social psychology as the study an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviours which are influenced by the actual, imagines, or implied

Forensic Psychology

1383 words - 6 pages What is a psychologist? What are the duties of a psychologist? When asked about the duties of a teacher or police officer your response will most likely be accurate or at minimum mildly accurate, but when asked the same question about a psychologist’s duties, people tend to have a clouded or sometimes blatantly inaccurate view. (C. Super and D. Super 1). The study of psychology refers to the observation of human and animal behavior; the goal is

About Psychology

1029 words - 5 pages Psychology & What Makes It A Science Our actions, thoughts and behaviors say a lot about who we are, but who knows why we act, say and think the way that we do? In an effort to help us better understand ourselves and others, psychologists have been attempting to provide and providing us the answer to these very questions for thousands of years. Their theories have been tried and tested and a great number of them proven. Psychology is a very

Similar Essays

Psychology Essay 803 Words

803 words - 3 pages Running head: FOUNDATION OF PSYCHOLOGY PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1 Foundation of Psychology"Psychology is a science of behavior and mental performing that uses the quantitative and qualitative research studies to promote and test hypothesis and put forward theories and models that explain human behavior.( http://www.helium.com/item/-history of psychology)Identify the major schools of thought in psychology and examine their underlying assumptions

Psychology Essay

1529 words - 6 pages Psychology is the investigation of the mind and how it processes and directs our thoughts, actions and conceptions. However, in 1879 Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany. Nevertheless, the origins of psychology go all the way back thousands of years starting with the early Greeks. This foundation is closely connected to biology and philosophy; and especially the subfields of physiology

Psychology Essay 933 Words

933 words - 4 pages When you think of a psychologist, you typically do not think about what minority they are. It never did occur to me before this assignment was due, that a book was prejudice against which they select to be referenced in books. In any subject, not just psychology, why would it matter if someone were of color, what his or her gender is? Many psychologists have not been given any recognition or an opportunity because they are not in the

Psychology Essay 661 Words

661 words - 3 pages Psychology The study of Psychology is based on the study of human behavior. Psychologists apply their learnings into multiple organizations such as management, human service, and many other areas. Psychology is also divided into different areas of behavior. Clinical Psychologists deals with working with hospital patients on a one to one basis individually. A Counciling Psychologist uses viewing and testing in their study on how to live