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Psychology Basics Essay

1167 words - 5 pages

A. What is the difference between reliability and validity in research?The difference in reliability and validity in terms of research are thatreliability measures the consistency of something that is being measured.Validity is concerned with whether we are measuring what we think we aremeasuring. Both reliability and validity have different forms.B. What is the definition provided for the following terms:correlation, predictive validity, face validity, ecological validity.Correlation - When two or more things have something in common, are associated or related.Predictive Validity - Whether a measure accurately allows us to predict something in the future.Face Validity - A measure taken or observed by taking a look. It does not have extensive research done.Ecological Validity - Refers to the degree to which results found in a study also occur in the greater population.Module 1:A. By using a biological approach, one can focus on the family history. Conduct traces in the family tree.The cognitive approach can reveal if a person was influenced to consume alcohol or learn of any misconceptions the person had about it. Psychologists can also see if the persons' feelings are strong for alcohol, almost dependent.The behavioral approach can explain what drove a person to alcoholism. It can explain what events lead up to the alcoholism or reasons for the modification in existing behavior.Psychoanalytic approach digs down and tries to find unconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thoughts, behaviors, and the development of personality traits. The alcoholic may not consider things to fear them or they might hide it and may as well be the cause. Psychologists can use this to find the "root" of the problems.The humanistic approach can help explain the alcoholic's self-worth and direction and drive for his/her future.The cross-cultural approach examines the influence of culture and ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning of a culture's member. These six approaches are used to find patterns and signs for alcoholism in families.B. To improve your note-taking skills, one must take notes as usual. Then, question your notes and find or ask answers to those questions. The use of outlines increases organization and try to use "memory pegs" (association of things already learned with newer things).C. Early discrimination discriminated against women and minorities. Women earned less than men or were not even admitted to universities. Minorities were denied admissions to universities and often doctorates and Ph.D.sModule 2: Philosophy & ScienceA. It is not very believable. Sometimes survey questions are biased or worded in a way to trick people. People may not answer truthfully to these surveys as well.B. One event or thing can be true, but the second event or thing does not always have to be. It shows a strong relationship between the two, but is not 100%. It could merely be a coincidence.C. One must conduct an experiment...

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