Psychology is the study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes. (Gerrig page 2). I think the field of psychology is divided into several parts: Research, counseling, perspectives, goals, and careers. Research has played a vital role in the psychology. It has identified and helped us to understand how and why people feel, act, and think. Implementing the scientific method enables the results to be both reliable and valid. By employing this precise method, psychologists are able to collect data and make reasonable conclusions based upon the facts collected.
Counseling explores human thoughts and behaviors. Psychologists utilize theories to explain why these actions and thoughts occur. Aristotle, Plato, Wundt, and Freud are a few of the pioneers who established guidelines to predict how, why, and when these behaviors will occur again in the future. Utilizing various techniques such as behavior modification, biofeedback, reward/punishment, and conditioning help modify and improve behaviors to better the lives of the individuals. It is important to remember that psychology is the study of both normal and abnormal behavior.
As presented in Chapter 1 of Psychology and Life there are seven psychological perspectives utilized to define the causes and consequences of behavior: Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Humanistic, Cognitive, Biological, Evolutionary, and Sociocultural. The behavioral perspective states that for every action there is a reaction and consequence. If you study hard, then I will get good grades. The cognitive perspective is based upon more advanced metal developments such as perception, memory, language use, thinking, problem solving, and decision making. The use of these processes involves actions and consequences which utilize human thought. With the cognitive perspective an individual would be extremely determined to earn good grades because they feel they deserve them.
The psychodynamic approach explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious forces. Childhood experiences shape personalities which are motivated from unconscious desires and beliefs. Humanistic perspective belief that all people are intrinsically good, have free will, and capable of choice. Each individual will strive to be the best of their potential.
The biological perspective attribute the causes of behavior to genetics or how damage to specific areas of the brain influence behavior and personality, nervous system, and endocrine system, (Gerrig pg 11). The evolutionary perspective is based upon Darwin’s theory of natural selection. Only the strongest of the species will adapt and survive. Finally, the sociocultural focuses on cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior (Gerrig pg 12). Culture and society shape individuals. Individuals are the products of their society and culture.
Psychological ideas/principles/factors are present in day-to-day life. Each time a commercial is viewed on TV the viewer is being...