Paper: Part 1
The two theories that I would like to discuss are Behaviorism and Humanism. The theory of
Behaviorism studies observable behavior and it also describes the laws and processes by which behavior
is learned. Due to the latter part of the definition, Behaviorism is also referred to as The Learning
Theory. The theory of Humanism stresses the potential of all human beings for good and the belief that
all people have the same needs regardless of culture, gender, or background.
John B. Watson introduced the theory of Behaviorism in 1912. This theory was created in
contrary to the psychoanalytic theory which was prevalent at the time. Watson brought forth this theory
arguing that psychology should be redefined as the study of behavior and not proposing it as a new
science. Within this theory is a process called conditioning and conditioning has two parts: classical and
operant. Conditioning is the process by which responses become linked to a stimuli and learning takes
place. Classical conditioning is a connected learning process that introduces a meaningful stimulus
gradually comes to be with a neural stimulus that had no special meaning before the process began.
Operant conditioning is a learning process that was first introduced by B.F. Skinner in 1948 and it’s a
learning process in which an action is followed either by something denied or by something unwanted.
Abraham Maslow is considered to be one of the most influential psychologists of all time,
particularly in the field of Humanism, also referred to as Humanistic psychology. Maslow was referred to
as a behaviorist psychologist. Maslow has broken down the core of the theory into five components,
which in turn, create Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. The following are the needs in order from the
bottom to the top, respectively: physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.
This hierarchy is a triangle with the bottom level being the physiological level and it goes up until you
reach the top of the pyramid, which is self-actualization. It was Maslow’s firm belief that one cannot go
to the next level without having their needs met in their current level. Self-actualization is what
everyone’s goal is, yet not all people reach this goal.
Behaviorism and Humanism are at two different spectrums of development; however, they do
share this developmental aspect in common: early responses are key in the beginning
development of children. The reasoning of the importance of this notion varies and this is where each
theory begins to branch off (behaviorism states this is important because children first begin learning
habits here; humanism states that this is important for self-acceptance later in life), but the core
concept begins from the same place and possibly may set the course for the rest of a person’s life.
Paper: Part 2
Howard Gardner is the founder of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. This concept was first
developed and introduced 30 years...