The classical model of Public administration so far has been influenced by two major figures, Max Weber and Frederic Taylor. The classical model emphasized on how the superior role in bureaucratic system is indispensable. As Weber stated, "a system of control in which policy is set at the top and carried out through a series of offices with each manager and worker reporting to one superior and held to account by that person”(Weber: Pfiffner 2004 p. 1).
While Frederick Taylor, who also has contributed to the classical model theory, had stated that to meet good accountability, management must make a tight control over its organization and planning process. However, despite the tight control, it does not necessarily mean workers will be too much-exploited (Taylor: Pfiffner 2004 p. 1). Hence, in this classical theory, implementing the leadership role to erect the regulations within the organization is very dominant.
While in Public Management or New Public Management, the indicator of someone is considering as successful or not is through the agreed target oriented, and to meet the target they were given little flexibility, so that it can run it is fullest in accordance with market expectation. This is an answer to the impasse goes on a classical model, as stated by Pollit and Bouckaert (2011) that New Public Management was trying to improve the effectiveness of public management through the application of market oriented, with injecting business methods. Where is the need to achieve requiring a market-type mechanism, performance indicators, targets, competitive contracts, and a quasi-market. In this system the system responsibilities or accountability have already started decentralized (spread out), where each person or organization has its own responsibility based on the targets and indicators agreed upon.
In other words the change of model in Public Administration from Traditional Public Administration to New Public Management and governance has changed the concept of accountability. Where in the Traditional Models legality is a key element of accountability, in the New Public Management (NPM) result oriented is the main component. It is also the focus of public sector accountability, from input and process orientation shifted to output and outcomes orientation as well as community’s satisfaction. As a consequence, the agency and the person must be able to articulate and report its progress objectively in term of indicators performance.
However, according to Callahan (2007) public accountability should not be addressed only internally (Government tops only), but also to other stakeholders such as community. In addition, the mechanism of public accountability is also aimed for measuring not only performance, but also able to monitor the behavior of public officials, to comply with the ethics and rules of the applicable law. From the explanation and in accordance with the theory of Public Value, where there are other components that need...