Public Art In Greece: To What Extent And In What Ways Does The Parthenon Perform The Function Of A Gigantic Billboard For The Late Fifth Century Athens? For Whom Is It Intended?

1808 words - 7 pages

The Parthenon (447-432BC) was dedicated to Athena, daughter of Zeus, and she was therefore one of the major figures in the Greek Parthenon. She was the goddess of wisdom, learning, the arts, household crafts and was the patroness and protector of Athens. Thus, Greek society was focused towards a state of enlightenment as opposed to (Persian) barbaric darkness, chaos and violence. It symbolized a civilized world of beauty, stability and harmony. But the Parthenon statues could also stand for political power and imperial ambition. It was built on the site of an earlier temple destroyed by the Persians. Its location - it sits on the Acropolis - dominates Athens. It draws the citizen's eyes upwards, automatically elevating him in body and spirit, filling him with awe, civic pride, perhaps even fear of such an impressive monument of power and beauty. This could, so to speak, make him 'tow the line', uphold the status quo, and remain an upright, law-abiding citizen.The sculptures of the Parthenon expressed great religious and mythic history and beliefs. When the Athenian citizen of ancient Greece looked up to the entrance of Athena's temple, he saw "those Olympian gods, with their beautiful bodies richly clothed...their mythical personalities symbolized in their poses and attributes - figures from a living religion whose cults went back to the Bronze Age" . This was proof that "the Athenian artists had not lost touch with their religious roots" . Their work was visible proof and reinforcement of a lasting legacy of a deep-seated cultural/religious heritage, not only for Athenians but the rest of the world."The influence of the Parthenon was vast because it stood as a symbol for civilization and rationality. Its sculpture was highly public - the official manifestation of city and cult, a statement of the ascendancy of Athens and the Athenians" . It was a beautiful, powerful propaganda tool - "we can see as clearly as any ancient viewer what the Parthenon was about: very simply the glorification of Athens, Athena and everything Athenian" . It was a monument to the Athenian victory over the Persians after forty years of war. It would have fostered great civic pride, symbolized intimidating dominance, power and wealth to other societies and kept them at a subservient distance. "In classical Athens public wealth was joined to the will of (the reigning statesman) Pericles and his ambition to express in architecture the power of the state of which he was head" . This is not unlike many other ego-driven, power-hungry heads of states in history (i.e. Hitler, Napoleon, Mussolini).Sections of the Parthenon, heroized figures on the frieze of those who fell at Marathon, where the Persians were defeated, served as role models for young Athenian men to aspire to. (This is not unlike our own war monuments) It thus honored their courage and sacrifice and elevated them from being mere mortals to worthy heroes, ascending and joining the realms of gods. These young...

Find Another Essay On Public Art in Greece: To what extent and in what ways does the Parthenon perform the function of a gigantic billboard for the late fifth century Athens? For whom is it intended?

To what extent do personal attributes affect Ways of Knowing and why, if at all, does answering this question matter in the first place?

785 words - 3 pages We receive knowledge through 4 ways which are emotion, reason, language and perception. Yet these ways of knowing are highly effected by the knowledge which is gotten through them since personal attributes which have been gained prior to now filter out the knowledge which is fed to us now. I personally am a Ukrainian who has been living and studying in an International school, in China for my whole life as well as a strong patriot of Communism

To what extent do personal attributes affect Ways of Knowing and why, if at all, does answering this question matter in the first place?

1134 words - 5 pages and essays till the last moment they where due. I always said that they where just 3 easy pages of work but in reality it was a long hard essay that I had to write.Environments that we grow up in also affect the ways of knowing in a large scale. We might grow up in a society where burping was a complement to signify a good meal and our language we speak is completely our own. The perception of the environment is that what we do is considered the

Thomas More' s Utopia, In what ways does Utopia function as a critique of More's time?

891 words - 4 pages UTOPIAUtopia is a work about a city which works very well and organaized. The Ideal city is shown under a story. In the story, A man goes to Utopia and he tells this ideal city to others after his journey. In The story, it si clear that he trys to show the bad parts of his times and he shows some solutions by Utopia. It talks nearly about everything. Ideal Political system, ideal Economical system and idealsocial problems may be good examples

Kate Chopin and the Cult of True Womanhood. Brief essay in response to "What does Kate Chopin's 'The Storm' tell us about gender roles in the late 19th century?

1071 words - 4 pages action herself and never protesting against it. She is therefore incapable of battling against the superior man, essentially displacing her piety and purity in the domestic and submissive desires of another man. Chopin may have intended to demonstrate to her audience that sexual repression is counter to true human nature; however, coupled with the popularity of The Cult of True Womanhood, Chopin failed to include the basic notion that a woman has

To what extent do personal attributes affect the ways of knowing and why if at all does answering this questions matter?

1373 words - 5 pages personal attributes on the ways of knowing. Knowledge is vital to individuals, it is central to our undertakings, and what a person is willing to accept as true leads him or her to their own collection of knowledge. For knowledge to be attained through authority requires a person to trust the source. When in school a student must trust the lecturer, the textbooks, facts, or and data points that are given. Authority figures are not infallible

Compare the ways that Mr Briggs and Mrs Kay are presented in 'Our Day Out'. With whom does Willy Russell intend us to sympathise?

1217 words - 5 pages comical way in his drama. Mrs Kay is a benevolent and fun teacher who treats the children as if they were her own. 'She always reminds me of a mother hen rather than a teacher'. Mr Briggs says this and it sums up exactly what Mrs Kay is like and her attitude to the children.Her aim on the school trip is for everyone to have fun with the only rule being '...think of yourselves but also think of others'. She genuinely cares for the children

"I found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble" (Augustus, Res Gestae) To what extent does Augustus' public building programme explain his success as emperor?

1401 words - 6 pages section 4. Of course this source cannot be trusted completely but it does give us an insight into what Augustus wanted people to believe. Another example of Augustus keeping promises is that he promised peace in the empire and in the Res Gestae he is letting everyone know the has done that, sections 25 and 34. By making people think he is a man of his word he will be seen as a man of honour and worthy to be their leader and this links to the fact he

Art Museum Collection -Classical Greece -Roman Civilization -Islamic Civilization -Early Chinese Civilization -Gothic and Late Middle Ages -The Baroque Age

1972 words - 8 pages Art Museum Collection PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 9 Art Museum CollectionHumanities and the ArtsClassical GreeceThe Parthenon is a masterpiece embodying the unique architecture of Classical Greek temples. Covering an earlier temple, sometimes referred to as Pre-Parthenon, it was the only structure completed before the Peloponnesian War. It stands on the highest level of the Acropolis, meaning "high city", above Athens, Greece. The temple was built in

How does Simon Langton's Pride and Prejudice reflect and or challenge the dominant ways of thinking of the 19th century?

1503 words - 6 pages next scene where she is in the presence of her elders, and thus, must conform to the moral authorities of social institutions, such as churches. Religion has had a great impact on the development of society; yet its influences today is far less than what it was before. Langton reflects and shows the low status of women in the 19th century, to a modern female audience of the 21st century. Women today enjoy a lot more freedom and many liberties

Why is the brand increasingly important for multinational companies and what function does it serve?

2029 words - 8 pages itself by focusing on the pleasurable experience of hair washing, rather than vainly trying to sell the end benefit of better looking hair to a shampoo weary public. Brands, through advertisements and promotion, must present consumers with a consistent vision, an integrated personality - 'Just do it' for example.Branding can often be an effective growth strategy, because branding is the only strategy directed at the people who matter - the people

To what extent is it possible to discredit the 'black legend of childhood' (Keith Wrightson) in 16th and 17th century England?

2384 words - 10 pages neglectful and possibly abusive by historians in support of the ‘black legend’, it can also be argued that, during the early modern period, parents carried out these traditions because of a general belief that they were doing what was best for their children.It is clear that many of the issues put forward as evidence of the ‘black legend of childhood’ are open to interpretation. Sixteenth and seventeenth century parents lived by a

Similar Essays

In What Ways And To What Extent Does A Doll's House Suggest That Rebellion Against Society Is Essential If The Individual Is To Find Their True Self

1660 words - 7 pages Nora is by all accounts a crazy woman. She is pathetic example for a wife and a mother. She is an individual who believes that the only way to change a society is by shocking it, and succeeds beautifully (or rather brutally). She is unsympathetic and does not believe in negotiations as a solution. The ease with which she leaves behind a broken husband and three children is appalling. Not once is she shown to have an iota of feelings towards any

To What Extent Did The Values Of The Enlightenment Fuel An 'industrial Revolution' In Britain In The Late Eighteenth Century And Early Nineteenth Century?

1751 words - 7 pages Also known as 'The Age of Reason', the Enlightenment is a term used to describe a period emerging from centuries of darkness and ignorance into a new age enlightened by reason, science, and a respect for humanity. Although the Enlightenment is usually associated with the eighteenth century, it's roots go back much further and it is important to understand how the values of the enlightenment were shaped. Works such as Essay Concerning Human

India In The Late 19th Century. To What Extent Could India Be Considered A 'nation' In The Late 19th To Early 20th Centuries?

698 words - 3 pages Late nineteenth to early twentieth century India, was directly controlled by Great Britain, and therefore, in name, it was a colony of the British Empire and not a nation of its own. However, India could be described as a nation, as the result of India's ability to be self-governing and self-sufficient and the Indian peoples' desire for self-government, as well as various aspects of Indian culture, such as religion, language, customs, and

Globalisation What Difficulties Are There In Defining Globalisation? To What Extent Is Globalization In The Late Twentieth Century A New Trend? Outline The Debates Regarding The Economic Benefits Of...

1241 words - 5 pages TOPIC 1: GLOBALISATIONFebruary Examination:What difficulties are there in defining globalisation? To what extent is globalization in the late twentieth century a new trend? Outline the debates regarding the economic benefits of globalization.There are today so many definitions of globalization that one would think that defining it is an easy task. However that seems not be the case. An accepted definition neither exists in science, nor in the