The right to migrate is constitutionalized, regulated and standardized in national and international agreements. The right to move from one community to another is based on previously agreed upon concepts of international cooperation policies and human rights. It is currently observed, in early twenty-first century, records of migrations of people between countries, compared to previous periods. According to data from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), there are now about 200 million migrants in the world. From this number, it is estimated that half are undocumented in the destination countries.
Historically and globally, migratory journeys have always occupied an important role in the civilization process, with significant impacts on the economy and socio-cultural development of the countries involved in these flows. In the context of the globalization of production and consumption markets, there is a growth of illegal immigration intended for the development of cheap labor in slave and/or degrading work. In most cases, the people subject to the immigration process are subdued to criminal networks of trafficking of persons and smuggling of migrants. The United Nations (UN) estimates that over three million migrants are victims of organized trafficking networks, which revenues over $32 billion per year.
WOMEN TRAFFICKING: A PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE
It is known today that the issue of trafficking of persons is a problem highly related to the phenomenon of globalization. Easier access to transportation and communication facilitates the process of migration for those who wish to move to a different area in search for better quality of life. In this context, every day, thousands of people in a situation of trafficking or not, migrate usually with the goal of making this journey a life changing event. This transformation in turn, especially when discussing about people who are social, economic, or culturally vulnerable, tends to relate directly to an imaginary reality and fictional idealizations of what turns out to be another unknown – the universe they want to find from the change in question.
Although there are no concrete data that prove the exact number of women trafficked for sexual exploitation around the world, the latest report by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime entitled Trafficking of Persons Report in Europe for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation (UNODC, 2010) shows that only in Europe there are about 140 thousand women who serve those who seek this market. The same report shows that each year there are 70 thousand new victims for sexual exploitation by organized crime in the region. Even though the groups responsible for carrying out the crime in question act each in its own way, there is a tendency for recruitment to occur under promises of better life, lucrative employment, social stability, cultural freedom, new personal experiences, and marriage.
The dream of social advancement in most cases is destroyed as soon as...