Section 1: Public Health and Public Health Practices/Investigations
Public health is the discipline and skill for preventing diseases and injuries, extending the lifespan and endorsing wellbeing through structured public work, the control of communicable diseases, the union of medical and nursing facilities for the prompt identification and disease prevention, teaching individual health and to make sure a standard of living suitable for the conservation of health (Breslow et al, 2002).. Public health focuses the health of the people completely than the treatment of individuals (Beaglehole et al, 2004).
The public health principles are meant for the public and other institutions that have a public health mission. Individuals and institutions that are not within the traditional public health but whom their activities have an impact on the health community find the code useful. The principles are used to recognize the risk causes and demonstrate the association amongst the three aspects that affect the incidence and prevention of disease. These factors are: Host, or the person or population with the disease; Agent, or the disease causing organism; and Environment, or location in which the host and agent interact. Understanding the incidence of disease is not sufficient to address preventive methods. The strategy needs to be comprehensive in three levels. Primary: Goal is to avoid proceedings that can cause result disease/injury, what can be done to avoid the disease/injury before the incident happens. Secondary: Goal is focused at changing the significances of events to avoid or lessen the severity of disease/injury. Tertiary: Aim is to limit long-term damages and disability. Passive strategies require no assistance or actions to those intended to be protected and are favoured above active strategies. But interventions are a mix of passive/active interventions. E.g. vehicle injury interventions contain passive interventions (highway engineering; air bags; automatic daytime running lights) and active interventions (seat belts, DUI checkpoints). Risks for diseases occur at the individual level, the societal level, and the environmental level. Preventing diseases needs various methods at each level. Some consist of education, awareness campaigns, legislation and modifying the surroundings. Disease/injuries need to be addressed at more than one level, and time and again all three. It is essential to recognize which prevention strategies are shown effective in order to have the utmost effect on your chosen program (Christoffel & Gallagher, 2005).
Public health should predominantly address the vital causes of disease and necessities for health which in turn aims to avoid adverse health consequences. For instance, the handling of treatable infections is essential to the deterrence of transmission of infection. Public health must reach community health which compliments the rights of those in the public. This Principle recognizes the mutual need in...