Quantum Teleportation is one of the newest areas of study in the field of quantum physics. It is the stuff of science fiction, which is fast becoming reality, where solid objects can be moved vast distances instantly. It has been the subject of books and movies for years but it wasn’t until recently that physicists at IBM’s laboratories made it a reality.
The ideas that formed the basis of these experiments came about from previous research by scientists such as Albert Einstein and Heisenberg. This essay will explore the research done on this subject, the theories behind it, and the possible applications.
Quantum teleportation is the idea that transporting matter can be achieved instantaneously by taking advantage of certain aspects of quantum physics. It is not possible to actually transport the matter, but rather, the properties of the object being transported can be applied to matter in a separate location. This newly created object is identical to the original down to the state of the individual atoms, and so is in effect the same object. The original object loses its properties during the process and is, in effect, destroyed.
This takes advantage of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation (Quantum), also referred to as entanglement. When two particles are entangled they take on properties identical to each other regardless of separation. This means that if something alters one of the entangled pair it affects the other in the exact same manner. In order to transport something we have to start with one of these entangled pairs. One particle at the source location and one at the location we want to transport the new object to. We then take a third particle, which is what will be transported, and measure it in relation to the entangled particle at our source location. The Hiesenberg Uncertainty Principle states that we cannot measure the position and state of a given particle without changing it but it is possible to measure how it interacts with one of the entangled particles. This information can then be sent to the remote location and applied to the second particle in the entangled pair. This particle then takes on all the properties of the original particle (Zielinger 53). And in effect becomes the original particle.
The theory of quantum matter transportation was just that, a theory, until two experiments made it a reality. The first of these was in 1993 at IBM where the first matter transport took...