Queen Hatshepsut, The Fifth Pharaoh Of The Eighteenth Dynasty Of Egypt Which Was One Of The Few Female Pharaohs Of Egypt.

2377 words - 10 pages

Hatshepsut was the eldest daughter of the pharaoh, Thutmose I and Queen Aahmes, the Royal Wife. Thutmose I was the successor of the childless pharaoh, Amenhotep I. Thutmose I was a successful general in the army and married the previous pharaoh's sister Aahmes.Hatshepsut was born around 1502 BC. Her two eldest brothers died in accidents before their father's death, so she was married to her younger half brother Thutmose II, a son of a secondary wife name Moutnofrit. In Ancient Egypt it was the custom for a male to be the pharaoh and often a pharaoh was married to his sister or a half-sister.This practice is referred to as the "Heiress Theory" by modern scholars. This theory states that a male no matter his station in life or bloodline must marry a daughter of the old pharaoh to succeed to the throne. The common practice was for the pharaoh to marry his favorite son to his eldest daughter. Brother sister marriages and even father daughter marriages were accepted in ancient Egypt. It is thought Hatshepsut was about fifteen years old when her father died. Thutmose II ruled about three years before "he went up to heaven and was united with the gods". Thutmose II had one daughter with his royal wife Hatshepsut, her name was Nofrure, he also had one other child a son, Thutmose III, by his mistress Isis.Thutmose III was about three years old when his father died around 1479 BC. Hatshepsut took over the control of the government on behalf of her young nephew as Queen Regent, she continued to use the title of "God's Wife", however, within a few years Hatshepsut was crowned a pharaoh and she adopted the full five great names and her name was placed in a cartouche.There were female pharaohs prior to her, as well as female pharaohs after her. However, Queen Hatshepsut was in many respects special. The question is, how was a woman able to establish such power during a time when societies were predominantly ruled by men?Women in Egypt had an advantage over their contemporaries in other societies, such as Mesopotamia and Greece. Egyptian women were allowed to own property, to hold official positions, and to inherit from their parents or late husbands. Furthermore, in the case of a dispute a woman was entitled to take her case to court and defend her legal rights. Based on these facts it seems clear women possessed the right to move about in public, unlike her counterparts in Greece whose designated area was the home.This social climate of Egypt, while male-dominated allowed women a significant amount of freedom and legal rights compared to women in other ancient societies. This made it possible for a number of queens, prior to and after Hatshepsut, to gain some influence over the kingdom of Egypt as regents. Hatshepsut was preceded by a number of important and seemingly influential queens in the 17th dynasty. Tetisheri, Aahotpou II, and Ahmose-Nefertary were all likely to have had some control over the government of Egypt.Succeeded by each other, they had an...

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