1. In which setting was the health promotion/prevention program implemented? What was the rationale for the selection of the setting?
JW Farquhar’s prevention program was a large experimental field study to help prevent cardiovascular disease. His setting for his study was done in California in the following five cities: Salinas and Monterey (the treated cities), Modesto, San Luis Obispo and Santa Maria (the controlled cities).
According to JW Farquhar (1996), his rationale for the selection of theses settings were to do a study that would analyze the effectiveness of a community-based health education that would conduct random assignments of a large number of communities. Due to limited resources, and the wide-ranging commonality of media markets in California, the design for the five nonrandom cities was assigned.
His study of these five cities faced many restrictions such as being located in northern California; the populations in the cities in his study needed to exceed 30,000 making the total population of the five cities being almost 300,000 in order to provide enough statistical data for the experiment alone; he had to find similarities in ethnicity, demographics and socioeconomic characteristics among the targeted population; the sharing of media markets between the treated cities in order to decrease the costs; there couldn’t be any newspapers or electronic media shared between both the treated and controlled cities. (Farquhar, 1996)
2. Was there a theory that guided the program or study? If so, what theory or theories were used?
The theories JW Farquhar used were the social learning theory, the behavior change model, community organization principles and social marketing method.
Social learning theory is our behavior that is learned from the environment that we are exposed to through the process of observational learning.
The behavior change model also known as Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has six stages, which a person may become hesitant before achieving complete change: are precontemplation stage, contemplation stage, preparation for action stage, action stage, and the maintenance stage and termination. In the precontemplation stage the person does not intend to take any action; in the contemplation stage, the person is thinking of making a change in the future; in preparation stage, the person is ready to do something; in the action stage, is when the person has taken action toward change at a recent time; in the maintenance stage means that the person has changed their behavior in terms of health risk and is focused on keeping that behavior change strong. The final stage is known as the termination stage, which is when the person has completely finished the process of a behavior change.
The other method that he used was the social marketing method. He chose this method as well because it aimed to influence behaviors that could benefit the individuals and communities targeted. It sought out to mix different research...