This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Race And Affirmative Action Essay

3216 words - 13 pages

Race and Affirmative Action

Race is an issue that is embedded in the nation’s history and continues to spur discussions on how the different minorities and ethnic groups must be treated fairly. Affirmative action is a recent attempt to solve the discriminations produced by racial inequality. However, affirmative action is also being scrutinized as scholars and the public debate the benefits and harms of affirmative action.

A Historical View

Throughout the past 30 years, affirmative action has been the answer to racial inequality. The policy began in 1965 under President Johnson. It was used to redress issues of discrimination, following the civil rights laws and constitutional guarantees on education and jobs. From the outset, affirmative action was envisioned as a temporary remedy that would create a "level playing field" for all Americans.

Affirmative action policies required that active measures be taken to ensure that blacks and other minorities receive the same opportunities for career advancements, school admissions, scholarships, and financial aid that had been nearly exclusive provisions for whites. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the landmark legislation that prohibited employment discrimination by large employers (over 15 employees), whether or not they had government contracts. As a result, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was established. Lyndon B. Johnson issued the E.O. 11246 regulation. It required government contractors and subcontractors to implement affirmative action policies to expand job opportunities for minorities. The Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCC) was designated to administer the regulation. In 1973 the Nixon administration issued "Memorandum-Permissible Goals and Timetables in State and Local Government Employment Practices," distinguishing between proper goals and timetables.

However, by the late 1970s flaws surfaced in the affirmative action policy. Reverse discrimination became an issue, epitomized by the Bakke case of 1978. A medical school that had accepted less qualified minority applicants had rejected Allan Bakke, a white male, two consecutive years. The school had a separate admissions policy for minorities. It reserved 16 out of 100 places for minority students. The Supreme Court voted that it was unconstitutional to set inflexible quota systems in affirmative action programs. The medical school had discriminated against a white applicant. In the same ruling, however, the Court upheld the legality of affirmative action in forms other than quota systems. In 1979 the Supreme Court reflected the Bakke decision. The Supreme Court ruled in AFO-CIO v. Weber, 444 U.S. 889 that race-conscious affirmative action efforts designed to eliminate a conspicuous racial imbalance in an employer's workforce resulting from past discrimination was permissible, as long as the actions were temporary and did not...

Find Another Essay On Race and Affirmative Action

Minorities and Affirmative Action Essay

1926 words - 8 pages So what is exactly the affirmative action? It is a practice of improving the educational and job opportunities of member of groups that have not been treated fairly in the past because of their race, sex, and nationality. Many people argue that there is no more discrimination in the United States of America, such as we have an African American president, all races have equal opportunity to attend college, attain a work and so on. However, no one

America and Affirmative Action Essay

1060 words - 4 pages accomplish the continued exclusion of Black Americansfrom participation within American society and thus further ingrain stereotypes andstigmas. Another reason that the stigma critique of affirmative action confuses me, isbecause the discussion is always limited to race and gender based affirmative actionpolicies. Where is the discussion about athletes and legacy students who are accordedpreferential treatment in university admission decisions on a

Discrimination and Affirmative Action

3024 words - 12 pages . Affirmative Action Programs use preferential treatment to benefit such groups as women, minorities and disabled veterans among others. Now we will discuss Affirmative Action Programs, specifically the Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Program in comparison to similar programs involving race and gender as well as the alternative of Diversity Management.Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action ProgramIn order to fully discuss the DVAAP we must first

Animosity and Affirmative Action

622 words - 2 pages example. Affirmative Action is the cause of difficulties in the firefighting hiring process. Because of the large number of minority applicants, including woman, getting hired as a firefighter is becoming increasingly difficult to accomplish for the white male because of the outdated Affirmative Action policy. As with many other outdated policies, Affirmative Action should be re-evaluated and possibly dismissed.Because our country is becoming so

ADA and Affirmative Action Paper

1204 words - 5 pages unjustified preference of the unqualified over the qualified of any race or gender.During the history of Affirmative action, many times affirmative action did not work, when used in the wrong way. And there are times when some employers do not use it in the right way. Employers may cut corners and treat a flexible goal as a quota. Employers may give opportunities to people who are unqualified instead of those who deserve it, thus opening the doors

Affirmative Action and Racial Equality

1709 words - 7 pages order mandating that contractors not discriminate against any employees or qualified applicants because of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Later, in 1967, he even amended it to include gender! President Johnson clearly saw the issue of discrimination in the work place and in the education system as he stated “this is the next and more preferred stage for the battle of civil rights” (Affirmative Action). Many would not make the

Reverse Discrimination and Affirmative Action

542 words - 2 pages (warning:very opinionated!!) Major issues surrounding affirmative action question if this policy violates individual rights or if its necessary in creating an equal society. Affirmative action is a program that takes the sex or race of an individual into account when hiring, giving collage scholarships est. in order to balance the number of minorities and whites. The moral issues for this heated topic of debate include whether affirmative action

President Kennedy and Affirmative Action

1686 words - 7 pages successful social policy, one would have to be able to distinguish those who have suffered from past discrimination from those who haven’t without error, a task that cannot be done when race, religion, or gender is considered without class. The next common argument for affirmative action, the argument for diversity, states that affirmative action creates a required sense of diversity within school and work communities. Proponents of affirmative action

Affirmative Action and Collective Responsibility

2529 words - 10 pages colors our thoughts and actions, and it makes itself felt every time someone applies for a job or has a college admission interview; it causes damage that is hard to estimate because the people involved are not consciously acting on the basis of race. Nonetheless, it has probably cost many promising minority candidates their admission to an Ivy League university. Affirmative action, therefore, is partially an attempt to balance the effects of

Affirmative Action and Higher Education

1550 words - 6 pages Affirmative Action and Higher Education   Two people stand in a room looking at a vibrant painting and receive a totally different image. This is something we all realize can happen. It is our different perspectives that make us valuable too each other. When trying to solve a problem or create a new idea, we need each other to bring forth considerations and concepts that would never occur otherwise. This concept is something most of us

Affirmative Action and Hosea Martin

851 words - 3 pages Affirmative Action and Hosea Martin Hosea Martin's article on affirmative action aims to defend the practice of hiring people not just on their qualifications but by their race as well. He does so by using his own experience in the work place along with some personal, unsupported opinions of his own regarding hiring practices and education. Martin also attempts to defend affirmative action programs as being fair and non

Similar Essays

Race And The Affirmative Action Policies

1700 words - 7 pages The utilization of race in affirmative action policies in higher education has been a topic of contention for several decades now. Since the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, we have seen some of the most heated debates over the fairness of affirmative action and the impacts on society the utilization of race creates. With such pending questions on fairness and of the constitutionality of affirmative action policies two major Supreme

Affirmative Action Based On Race? Essay

1430 words - 6 pages this chance. However, both the black and Hispanic students got a 1900 on their SAT’s so how is it possible that they were accepted? Does it have anything to do with race? The only way to find out is to look deeper into affirmative action. Affirmative action is based on the representation of women and minority groups in a workplace or school. This idea was created to bring more diversity in America and try to control racism amongst the different

Which Standard Of Review Should The Court Use When Analyzing Race Conscious Affirmative Action Programs?

2009 words - 8 pages Which standard of review should the court use when analyzing race conscious affirmative action programs? Over the last 35 years, the Supreme Court has attempted to answer this question numerous times; each time clarifying certain parts, while leaving other parts intentionally vague and open to interpretation. The result has been various affirmative action plans being called into question to see if they violate the Equal Protection Clause based

Women And Affirmative Action Essay

1555 words - 6 pages Act of 1964 made it illegal for employers to discriminate based a variety of factors including sex (Bulwik, 1972, p. 3), the "real roots of present day Affirmative Action policy" were a number of Orders issued by John F. Kennedy (Johnson, 1989, p.114). Since then, there have been numerous court cases that have clarified the parameters of affirmative action, deciding what is legal and illegal for employers to do in regards to what extent race or