This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

"Radical Surgery's Effect On The Modern Day Mastectomy"

1147 words - 5 pages

What is radical surgery's role in eradicating breast cancer? Radical surgery is the extirpation of an area of the body that is locally ridden with disease. Typically, it is an extremely risky surgery and was once thought to be the solution to every type of cancer, excluding brain cancer. Today, this type of surgery most often deals with various different types of local cancer. In the case of breast cancer, radical surgery is used to remove all cancerous cells from the breasts. The name primarily associated with this bold, medical advancement would be Dr. William Stewart Halsted. Although Halsted did not invent the concept of radical surgery, he did perfect it and bring it to its extreme. Dr. Halsted paved the way for today's breast cancer treatment, and modifications of his courageous surgeries are still performed today. Without his risky radical mastectomy, the world would be a lot farther behind in the hunt for a cure for breast cancer.
Breast cancer was and still is the leading cause of death in women in the United States , and Dr. Halsted's number one goal was to reduce reoccurrence. He believed that the most effective way to reach this goal was to uproot the cancerous cells in the breasts, thus giving it its name "radical" mastectomy. The original mastectomy involved only removing the cancerous tumor, known today as a lumpectomy. After the aggressive disease returned, Halsted decided to remove the breast entirely. Frustrated with his negative results, he begins a tour through Europe to learn from some of the biggest names in surgery during the late 1800's throughout the early 1900's. Halsted wanted to keep cancer from taking over the body yet again. During his time in Europe, he witnesses his fellow surgeon, Volkmann, remove the thin layer of muscle beneath the breast called the pectorals minor. After this proves to not be as effective as originally planned, Halsted decided to take matters into his own hands. Halsted takes the surgery even deeper, and he removes the pectoralis major, the muscle for controlling movement of the chest and the arm. While this surgery left the women physically and mentally scared, it proved effective in cases where the cancer had not metastasized beyond the muscular wall beneath Once he returned to his home in New York, Halsted develops his theory and signature radical mastectomy. This involves removing the entire breast, the levels I, II, and III axillary lymph nodes, and the muscular wall underneath the breast, leaving nothing but enough skin to close the incision. Although his radical mastectomies did significantly reduce recurrence of cancer in the breasts, most of his patients died shortly after surgery due to either the lack of a sterile surgical environment or the return of their cancer. He realizes the explanation for the recurrence in an English surgeon, Charles Moore's, words "Mammary cancer requires careful extirpation of the entire organ. Local recurrence of cancer after operations is due to the...

Find Another Essay On "Radical Surgery's Effect on the Modern Day Mastectomy"

The effect of Hip Hop on Modern Culture

2099 words - 8 pages Mod West ISU EssayJust as the vinyl records on a DJ's turntable turn round and round, so does the cycle of modern trends. It moves from extremes, from one pole to another. On one side is realism, the ideas of reason and science, represented by such movements as the enlightenment and realism. On the other side are the ideas of fantasy, the ideas of dreams and the ethereal, represented by such movements like impressionism and romanticism.Hip-hop

The Effect of Trade on Early Modern Europe

1365 words - 6 pages Before I discuss trade and Early Modern Europe, I think the connection to capitalism needs to be made. Economists stated it was the transformation of the European economy through investment in new, larger-scale processes of trade and production and termed this the rise of capitalism (Weisner-Hanks, 203).” It was viewed that trade was at the center of the development of the modern world. Adam Smith, in Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the

Miracles in the Modern Day

1706 words - 7 pages physical world that surpasses all known human or natural powers and is ascribed to a supernatural cause. This definition is a typical definition that any person in the world would say however it does not give full credit to God for miracles. The second definition given on is such an effect or event manifesting or considered as a work of God. This second definition is how Christians should think of miracles. Miracles are works of God. In

AIDS: The Modern Day Epidemic

2257 words - 9 pages AIDS: The Modern Day Epidemic Did you know that if a straight line of pennies was made down any given road, extending one mile, there would be over a hundred thousand dollars worth of change on the street? Dimes? Well over a million dollars. How about something that hits closer to home, something like lives? In 1996, when the AIDS pandamenic was at its peak, a memorial quilt made of individual panels about six feet by three feet in size was

Effects of Entertainment on Modern-Day Society

743 words - 3 pages The release of "Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas," a video game that draws heavily upon gang culture and violence, was a best-selling title in 2004. When playing this game, one can hear phrases such as, “Move, bitch” and, “Ima bust a cap in yo punk ass”. The game not only celebrates the gang lifestyle at a time when gang membership is rising nationwide, but makes a mockery of a tragedy that’s all too real. This modern day

Thomas Hobbes´ Influence on Modern Day Politics

1177 words - 5 pages , the influence of Thomas Hobbes cannot be forgotten, as his work helped to shape modern day politics. Works Cited Hobbes, Thomas, and E. M. Curley. Leviathan: with selected variants from the Latin edition of 1668. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co., 1994.

Beowulf's Influnce On Modern Day Media

784 words - 3 pages and continues to to this day. And what is an epic tale without its titular epic hero? As his story stands as the epic piece, Beowulf stands as the greatest example of an epic hero, featuring all of the main qualities, including (but not limited to) such qualities as a god-like, world-renowned position among the people, and a bravery of a near insidious kind, such that it even becomes his third trait as well, as his obligatory personal hamartia

Film Noir's Effect on Modern Cinema

1427 words - 6 pages Film Noir's Effect on Modern Cinema High heels click on wet pavement, shady detectives stand in the shadows, shots ring out through the cold, dark city night-just another moment in film noir. These seedy, almost underground films are considered to be some of the best and most influential pictures in the history of Hollywood by anyone's standards, most certainly some of the darkest. Even though the glory days of film noir have long passed

Effect of Technology on Modern Society

787 words - 3 pages Cause and Effect of Technology in modern society The evolution of technology has changed society in both positive and negative ways. People all over the world use and benefit from modern technology. Technology has simplified the access to many tools people need in education, medicine, communication, transportation, etc. However, using it too often has its drawbacks as well. In most cases, the time of finishing projects is cut by more than half

The Effect of Diplomacy on the Rise of the Modern State

1706 words - 7 pages To what extent did diplomacy effect the rise of the modern state from 1648-1815?    The modern state was sovereign; therefore, internally, it exerted itself its authority, within a territorial boundaries which was clearly defined and acknowledged internationally, there was no authorities higher than the state. Externally, state sovereignty indicated that other states recognized its authority within its borders, and agreed that it could

Modern Day Influences of the Mongolian Empire

651 words - 3 pages all throughout the world, as well as created unique innovations on modern day products and means of study. The Mongolian Empire is so astonishing that it was the largest land Empire to this day while only lasting 162 years. However, that is not the only thing the Mongolian Empire is known for, it’s also known for its amazing constructions and beliefs that did not perish with the fall of the Empire, but rather lived on through the eras to modern day.

Similar Essays

The Effect Of Day Care On Children

1470 words - 6 pages The Effect of Day Care on Children Because many stay at home mothers are entering the work force, there is a higher demand for day care centers for the mothers’ children. The topic of day care centers and whether they are beneficial to young children is becoming discussed more frequently. An increasing number of parents are becoming more cautious about the type of childcare they choose for their children. Some parents are adhering to the

The Modern Day Slavery Essay

1376 words - 6 pages needs to be stopped by educating people about it. Human trafficking is the 2nd biggest illegal industry behind the drug trade. It comes in so many different forms. Human trafficking by definition is the illegal trade of humans through recruitment or abduction, by means of force or fraud, for the purposes of forced labor, sexual exploitation or debt bondage. Human trafficking is the modern day slavery. There are an estimated 2.5 million people in

The Modern Day Dream Essay

783 words - 4 pages man not only of black decent but that of mixed as well. I stand having the same education and the ability to say that we are all truly brothers and sisters. Though when ask what the America’s dream is, most are at a lost. The American dream differs from person to person, from material happiness to feeling comfortable living on the streets. The issue we are facing is that the opportunity for a comfortable living is not so easily available nor is

The Effect Of Ancient Medieval Achievements On Modern Society

705 words - 3 pages How has the culture of Ancient Greece and Rome had an affect on our modern day society? The arts, music and dance, and words etc. from the ancient worlds have had a great impact on our modern day society. Without the culture of the Ancient Worlds I think that our culture would have been a whole lot different... for the worse. Our words are mostly from Greek, our art is off of Greek and Roman ideas, and our music comes from Greek and Roman