Substance misuse is the continued use of drugs or alcohol despite negative consequences to the individual using, their friends, family and the community. Many individuals who are addicts start using some form of recreation or prescribed drug at first and become dependent over time due to inappropriate use. Drug misuse is usually considered as a crime while most individuals overlook it as a mental health issue. Most people do not come forward to seek help because of the stigmatization and the fear of the law. This school health education programme can only be successful if partners from the health, education and social services sector are actively involved. It is also necessary to understand the wider determinants of this health problem as it will help in reducing the health inequalities that may arise. According to the public health England, the level of deprivation, poverty, drug misuse and life expectancy in Manchester is significantly worse than England average. This paper will adopt a getting to outcomes planning framework to design a health education programme for secondary school students.
The target group under consideration is students between the ages of 11-17 though there have been cases of drug use in individuals under this age group. The site of intervention will be public secondary schools in Manchester, North West England. Public schools was chosen in order to help reduce and inequalities that may arise as a result of deprivation, poverty or ethnicity. This population is important because of the high rate of drug use in the area. Although, the highest number of deaths occurs among the 40-49 age groups, most drug addicts admit to using of drugs early in their teen years. Manchester in North West of England will be chosen because of the high rate of drug misuse in the area.
The Getting To Outcomes (GTO) planning model (Chinman et al. 2004) will be used for the implementation of this programme as it is suitable for long term projects. It was initially designed to improve on substance misuse programmes. GTO will be of importance because it is flexible, recognizes existing programmes and has checklists for accountability (Wiseman et al. 2007). However the use of checklists can be limiting and this programme will adopt some steps from the Precede-Proceed model. This is because the Precede-Proceed model recognizes that there are multiple factors that are responsible for people's behaviour and it outlines a detailed evaluation process (Green and Kreuter, 2005). The diagram below outlines the framework for planning to be used.
10 STEPS IN GETTING-TO-OUTCOMES FRAMEWORK (CHINMAN ET AL., 2004)
A need assessment will be carried out in the community where the secondary schools are located in order to establish how far drug misuse has eaten deep into the society and the challenges that are faced in dealing with it. This needs assessment will enable proper allocation of resources between these...