This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Effects Of Gene P53 The Tumor Repressor

917 words - 4 pages

"Induction of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Antitumor Immunity with DNA Vaccines Expressing Single T Cell Epitopes," by Frank Ciernik, Jay A. Berzofsky, and David P. Carbone explores the uses of the gene gun and how it can induce both humoral and cellular immunity. The paper specifically explores the effects of p53, a tumor repressor which gets its name from its molecular weight( p53 is a protein that has a molecular weight of 53). It is tremendously important because fifty percent of known cancer types stem from a mutation in this gene.

A Brief History of Immunization

Vaccines came about some 200 years ago when Jenner discovered that if someone caught a mild case of cowpox they would not get smallpox.

In 1879, another scientist, Louis Pasteur, accidentally discovered the vaccine for fowl cholera by leaving cultures out in his laboratory. Later, Pasteur went on to develop an effective vaccine for rabies.

The typhoid and cholera vaccines were produced by Wilhelm Kolle in 1896.

The groundwork for tetanus and diptheria toxid vaccines was laid by Emil von Behring and Emile Roux in the early 20th century.

In 1955, the polio vaccine, developed by Jonas Salk, was licensed.

The Contagious and Non-Contagious Infectious Diseases Sourcebook estimates that a vaccine for chickenpox developed by Merrick Sharp Dohme will soon be available.


There are many advantages to using gene immunization rather than protein immunization. For example, it is more effective at inducing cellular and humoral responses than protein. More importantly, it is safer.

By targeting only the desired epitope, this method of immunization avoids the induction of unwanted responses. A current example of an unwelcome response would be enhancing antibodies in HIV patients, which may promote infection. This, of course, needs to be avoided.

Gene immunization also minimizes the chance of the patient developing autoimmunity. Autoimmunity is the condition where the body mounts an immune response against its own cells and tissues. Obviously, this condition, which sometimes occurs with protein immunization is undesirable.

Furthermore, this method is safer than immunizing with a live or attenuated organism because the patient would not become infected with the organism -- for example, polio virus -- one is trying to immunize against. Even with today's technology, a small percentage of people contract polio from the vaccine. This would not happen if they are immunized with the specific CTL epitopes for this disease. Since the whole protein is not present, the patient would not contract the illness.

Genetic immunization is also more effective than protein immunization. In this approach, DNA enters a cell, replicates and produces protein which, in a sense, is similar to what a virus does. Simplistically, this tricks the immune system into believing that the cell is infected with a virus so that T-cells will recognize the cell, immediately divide and...

Find Another Essay On Effects of Gene p53 the Tumor Repressor

The Development of Gene Manipulation Essay

1679 words - 7 pages ). Somatic gene therapy has currently been used on the human species and offers vast treatment possibilities. Somatic gene therapy is conducted by transferring therapeutic genes into the somatic cells, or introducing the cells into the human body. These modifications will be restricted to the treated individual and effects of treatment will not be inherited by later generations. This treatment option is focused on treating severe genetic disorders

The Ethics of Gene Therapy Essay

3041 words - 12 pages specific genes from DNA. These techniques matured from the massive surge of ideas generated during the Recombinant DNA (rDNA) era. Gene therapy is basically the repairing of genes to correct for diseases that result from a loss or change in our genetic material. It is hard to comprehend the total effects of gene therapy, because we do not know if it should really be used? Who does it really benefit? And ultimately people can easily contemplate how

Primary atypical carcinoid tumor of the liver: A case report

816 words - 4 pages INTRODUCTION Incidence of carcinoid tumor is between 55% and 30% in the digestive system and respiratory system. Most commonly carcinoid tumor are seen in the small intestine (45%) in digestive system. Frequency of carcinoid is followed as rectum (20%), appendix (17%), Colon (11%) and stomach (7%) [1]. Primary carcinoid tumor of the liver is not a common disease. Primary carcinoid usually reaches a large size at the time of diagnosis [2

Neurological Effects of Fos B Gene on Behavior of Mice

1818 words - 7 pages The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of the fos B gene and it's neurological effects on the behavior of mice through the analysis of "A Defect in Nurturing in Mice Lacking the Immediate Early Gene fos B" appearing in the July 26 issue of Cell. Through various chemical and behavioral tests it is found that fos B mothers demonstrate an inability to nurture their young. It was shown that the lack of expression of the fos B gene in

Gene Therapy: the Danger of Enhancement

3870 words - 15 pages the amount of scientific non-knowledge present. Is the possibility of the activation of an oncogene or the inactivation of tumor suppressors worthy of the risk? Wivel and Walters point out that subtle adverse effects on the brain may not be detected in animal models or noticed in patients for decades (1993). With so many adverse possibilities for gene therapy, it is no wonder that much of the general public has a negative view of gene therapy

The Pros and Cons of Gene Therapy

2200 words - 9 pages human cells may trigger a response from the human immune system, thinking it is a pathogen. This therefore reduces the effectiveness of the treatment. For example, a vector may inactivate a cancer suppressor gene and start production of a tumor. ( Another reason is that some conditions that come about from genetic mutations are caused by the combined effects of many genes. This makes the treatment very difficult and is why

The Potential Power of Gene Therapy

1736 words - 7 pages already to alter the bacteria DNA and use this to produce artificial fuel and degrade corrosive pollutants of the atmosphere. It can be also used to reduce greenhouse effect. David A Christoper depicts a number of ways people will get benefits from gene therapy in his journal article. Defective genes cause many types of cancers and other diseases. Only drug treatments are not enough and sometimes it comes with a unexpected side effects. Sometimes

The Ethical Controversy of Gene Therapy

1623 words - 6 pages physically disabled persons to lead life like a normal human, it also raises questions about morality as well as the adverse effects it may cause in the future society. In our media intensive society, thousands of newspapers and magazines, tv talk shows resound with different points of view about the morality of gene therapy. Proponents of this medical treatment argue that it promises enormous benefits for medicine as well as agriculture and industry

Genetic Engineering: The History of Gene Therapy

892 words - 4 pages eventually cure genetic disorders. However, after ten years in operation, there is only one published article of successful gene transfer, as opposed to the 400 unsuccessful protocols conducted world wide. The idea of gene modification seems scary to numerous people. Walters explains this as simply a misunderstanding of the two kinds of genetic intervention. One type could be compared to an organ transplant, and only effects the patient that

The Pros and Cons of Gene Technology

1982 words - 8 pages injections. This process was more expensive, but it was also animal insulin, so there was a high risk of side effects. With gene technology, it is now possible to manipulate bacteria to produce vast quantities of human insulin at a cheaper cost with no side effects. Another practical use in medicine is to check unborn babies for possible genetic disorders. With gene technology it is possible to assess the likelihood of an

The Pros and Cons of Gene Alteration

2314 words - 9 pages to mess with their genes just for your own satisfaction of having the perfect baby? Gene alteration can also be used in other more beneficial ways. One being to prevent and weed out disease that effects an unborn child. Gene alteration can be very beneficial, but only if used in the right way such as preventing and controlling disease. Myths of Reproduction For centuries, people have been trying to choose their babies sex through home

Similar Essays

Regulation And Functions Of The P53 Protein

1189 words - 5 pages p53 gene, also known as tumor protein 53 (TP53), encodes for a tumor suppressor protein which regulates the cell cycle and apoptosis. The p53 protein has been described as the guardian of the genome (1) because of its role in preventing genetic mutation. It belongs to a protein family which includes p53, p63 and p73 and these are structurally and functionally related to each other. However, p53 seems to have evolved as a tumor suppressor in

The Effects Of A Tumor On The Family Members

1391 words - 6 pages The Effects of a Tumor on the Family Members A tumor that is specifically in the frontal cortex can cause many changes physically and emotionally which can affect the way you interact with your family. Some of the functions of the frontal lobe are attention, abstract thought, problem solving, intelligence, creative thought, initiative inhibition, judgment, mood, major body movements, bowel and bladder control, memory and

Physical And Functional Interaction Of The Proto Oncogene Evi1 And Tumor Suppressor Gene Hic1 Deregulates Bcl X L Mediated Block In Apoptosis

731 words - 3 pages to 120 amino acids (aa); HIC1-121 to 438 aa; HIC1-439 to 612 aa and HIC1-613 to 714 aa were cloned into flag-pCMV vector (Sigma, USA). Similarly, EVI1-∆ (24-239 aa) (first set of zinc finger) was generated by cloning the EcoRI and SalI digested PCR amplified EVI1 fragment in HA-pCMV vector (Clontech, Japan) (Pradhan, Mohapatra, 2011b). 2.2 Cell culture and transfection Human colorectal carcinoma cell line, HCT116 (p53-/-) and embryonic kidney

Physical And Functional Interaction Of The Proto Oncogene Evi1 And Tumor Suppressor Gene Hic1 Deregulates Bcl X L Mediated Block In Apoptosis

662 words - 3 pages a strong colocalization (Shandilya et al. , 2009). 3.4 HIC1 decreases the DNA binding efficiency of EVI1 and deregulates its transcriptional activity Earlier reports have suggested that EVI1 regulates the transcriptional activity of the anti apoptotic gene Bcl-xL (Pradhan, Mohapatra, 2011b). Here, as we observed that EVI1 interacts with HIC1 through its 1st set of zinc finger domain, we wanted to study the effect of HIC1 on the DNA binding