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Randkulturen Der Rebellion Roland Girtler

1030 words - 4 pages

Randkulturen der Rebellion - Jugendliche Fussballfans als "wilde Stämme"Jugendliche Fussballanhänger sind ein gutes Beispiel für eine Randkultur der Rebellion, in der man sich gegen starre Normen wehrt und auf ein altes Recht zurückgreift, nämlich das Recht der Freiheit, für die eigene Partei sich heldenhaft einzusetzen. Roland Girtler versucht in seinem Buch "Randkulturen - Theorie der Unanständigkeit" das Verhalten der Fussballfans zu erklären, indem er ihre Kultur mit der, der wilden Stämmen vergleicht.Sport und Gewalt - Fussballkampf als StammeskriegDie Geschichte des Fussballsports verweist auf eine lange Tradition kriegerischer Kampfhandlungen. In seinem Mutterland England wurde es bereits im 13. Jhdt, wegen der Tötung eines Fussballspielers während des Spiels, auf dem Hof vor der Kirche verboten. Er ist nicht bloss irgendeine Sportart, sondern erinnert an kultische Opferungen und hat mit Ritualen zu tun. Fussball ähnelt dem alten Ballspiel der Azteken, bei dem die verlierende Partei von den Siegern und deren Anhängern rituell verprügelt, manchmal sogar getötet wurde. Auch bei den Ballspielen der Indianerstämme im Nordosten Nordamerikas waren Spiel und Krieg eng miteinander verbunden. Wie heute auf dem Fussballplatz, wurde das Spiel oft zum reinen Kampf. Die Aktionen der Fanclubs haben grosse Ähnlichkeiten mit Stammeskriegen. Im Unterschied zu den hochorganisierten Kriegen, wie sie von Staaten durchgeführt werden, zeichnet sich ein Krieg zwischen Stämmen, genauso wie der Krieg zwischen Fanclubs, durch Ritualen und Zeremonien aus, die die eigene Mannschaft verherrlichen und die Gegner degradieren. Gewöhnlich wird Sport mit ehrenswerten Eigenschaften wie Fairness verknüpft. Mit solchen edlen Werten ist es aber wahrlich nicht sehr weit her, denn der Wettsport beruht auf alter, kriegerischer Kultur.Helden und Kriegssymbole der Fans - EthnozentrismusWie die Stämme, benutzen auch die Fanclubs Symbole, die von grosser Bedeutung für die gemeinsamen Aktionen sind. Zu denen zählen das Team und seine Farben, Fahnen, Mützen und Schals. Die Gesichtsbemalungen haben dieselbe Wirkung wie Kriegsbemalungen in Stammeskulturen. Auch das Austragen von Konflikten durch Spottlieder hat eine interessante Tradition, die bei den Fussballfans eine Fortsetzung findet. Die Schlachtgesänge dienen dazu, die Gegner zu verteufeln und ihn zum Nichtmenschen zu degradieren, indem man sie beispielsweise als "blöde Schweine" bezeichnet. Dies ist ganz in der Tradition alter Stammeskulturen, die eigene Gruppe als "Menschen" zu beschreiben und die gegnerische als "Nicht-Menschen". Die Hottentotten z.B. nennen sich "Khoin-khoin", was "Menschen der Menschen" bedeutet, die Eskimos bezeichnen sich als "Inuk", was ebenso "Mensch" heisst. Die sich gegenseitig singend verspottenden Fussballfans errinnern an die 'nith'-Gesänge der Eskimos, die an die...

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