Rationalism, Empiricism, Dialectic Materialism Essay

815 words - 3 pages

Empiricism's definition is knowledge and truth are products of sensory experiences and not of purely mental operations. This word is derived from the Greek word empeiria, meaning "experience. With this definition we can conclude and knowledge of empiricism, we can conclude that empiricism consists of two statements: analytic statements and synthetic statements. Analytic statements are statements that attribute a property to something, and with that, the property is already implicit in the definition of that object or concept. An example of an analytic statement would be if the statement "Smith is a bachelor" was given to you. The sentence "Smith is a bachelor" means that Smith is unmarried. So if anyone were to ask you, what is a bachelor, with that sentence, you would know that it would mean that a bachelor is an unmarried man. Looking at this concept would be considered to not moving "outside" of the box. But on the other hand, synthetic statements are the exact opposite of analytic statements. They attribute a property to something and that property goes beyond what is contained within the definition of the object of concept involved. A simpler version of this definition would be that synthetic statements add something to the concept at issue. Basically, they move "outside" the box. For example, saying that a page is white, it would be synthetic because if you were to examine a definition of the concept "page," you would not find the idea "white". "Page" suggests "material which can take writing," "flat surface," "part of a book or let," and so on. All these conclusions are what make a statement synthetic.An empiricist philosopher that would be against rationalism would be John Locke. He is a British Empiricist who rejects the notions that the mind can encounter nonsubstantial, universal essences and that it comes equipped with innate ideas that are self-evidently true. The most important statement would be that Locke believes that everything we know must come through the senses.The definition of rationalism would be rationalism claims that knowledge comes from, or arises, in our minds. The word rationalism is derived from the word ratio coming from the Latin word for "reason". The first philosopher that is connected to rationalism is Plato. Plato believes that to the physical world which we experience with our senses, there is another dimension of reality that we encounter only with our minds. What he means by this is that he thinks that forms exist. Forms...

Find Another Essay On Rationalism, Empiricism, Dialectic materialism

Reflections on Philosophies of Education Essay

1761 words - 8 pages effect of altitude on atmospheric pressure. Descartes' contemporary, English philosopher Thomas Hobbes felt that Descartes should have stuck to physics as his metaphysics were confused by the separation of mind and body. Marx, building on the idealism of his German predecessors, Kant and Hegel, added his theory of dialectical materialism, and concluded that social progress would depend on a superior economic system that would distribute wealth

John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume

1378 words - 6 pages of such cognitive success. John Locke set the tone for enlightenment by affirming the foundational principle of empiricism: There is nothing in the intellect that was not previously in the senses. Locke could not accept the Cartesian rationalist belief in innate ideas. According to Locke, all knowledge of the world must ultimately rest on man's sensory experience. The mind arrives at sound conclusions through reflection after sensation. In other

Transcendentalism and Ralph Waldo Emerson

2310 words - 9 pages the only verifiable reality is thought to be self. It also comes from materialism in which the only verifiable reality is thought to be quantifiable outside world of objects, and sense data. Through this fusion, transcendentalism was transported to America as a philosophy. Through his source of most of its poetry and mysticism, Emerson fostered the growth of transcendentalism of the New England variant. His ideas, which came from Kant, were

Romanticism vs Neoclassicism

3220 words - 13 pages historiography in Western civilization over a period from the late 18th to the mid 19th century. Romanticism can be seen as a rejection of the precepts of order, calm, harmony, balance, idealization, and late 18th century Neoclassicism. It was also to some extent a reaction against the Enlightenment and against 18th century rationalism and physical materialism. Romanticism emphasized the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative, the

The Beliefs of Plato vs Aristotle

3784 words - 15 pages writings, asking, "What do we know so certain about Aristotle?" (Isis Unveiled I, 320.) It seems that in spite of his demand for research into particulars, Aristotle was forced to return to the Platonic view of origins. This is indicated by H.P.B.'s explanation of his theory of Privation, Form and Matter. As Lange points out in his History of Materialism, Aristotle's admission of the reality of the universal, in things, "leads, in its logical

The Biography of Aristotle

3762 words - 15 pages so certain about Aristotle?" (Isis Unveiled I, 320.) It seems that in spite of his demand for research into particulars, Aristotle was forced to return to the Platonic view of origins. This is indicated by H.P.B.'s explanation of his theory of Privation, Form and Matter. As Lange points out in his History of Materialism, Aristotle's admission of the reality of the universal, in things, "leads, in its logical consequences, little as Aristotle

The Origin, Development and Significance of Human Rights

9689 words - 39 pages primitive state and never diminished by the claim of the "divine right of kings."NATURAL LAW TRANSFORMED INTO NATURAL RIGHTSThe modern conception of natural law as meaning or implying natural rights was elaborated primarily by thinkers of the 17th and 18th centuries. The intellectual--and especially the scientific--achievements of the 17th century (including the materialism of Hobbes, the rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz, the pantheism of

Reality and Illusion in Shakespeare's Hamlet - Reality, Appearance and Deception

896 words - 4 pages Reality and Illusion in Hamlet   Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, begins with the appearance of a ghost, an apparition, possibly a hallucination. Thus, from the beginning, Shakespeare presents the air of uncertainty, of the unnatural, which drives the action of the play and develops in the protagonist as a struggle to clarify what only seems to be absolute and what is actually reality. Hamlet's mind, therefore, becomes the central force of the

Sub-plots in Hamlet

1118 words - 4 pages Sub-plots in Hamlet   There are many things that critics say make Hamlet a "Great Work," one of which is the way that Shakespeare masterfully incorporates so many sub-plots into the story, and ties them all into the main plot of Hamlet’s revenge of his father’s murder. By the end of Act I, not only is the main plot identified, but many other sub-plots are introduced. Among the sub-plots are trust in the Ghost of King Hamlet, Fortinbras, and

Hamlet as Victim and Hero

1301 words - 5 pages Hamlet as Victim and Hero      Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, a Shakespearean tragedy, tells the story of Prince Hamlet, who gained the knowledge of a terrible incident that his kingdom had suffered. Claudius, the king of Denmark and Hamlet's uncle, had killed his own brother, the king, who was also the father of Hamlet, and married his brother's widow. Hamlet suffered these traumas to a severe degree, and his only relief was to defeat his

Essay on Light and Dark in Antigone

1188 words - 5 pages Use of Light and Dark in Antigone   The "Golden Age" of Greece is noted for its many contributions to the creative world, especially in its development of the play. These performances strived to emphasize Greek morals, and were produced principally for this purpose. Antigone, by Sophocles, is typical. The moral focused on in Antigone is the conflict between physis (nature) and nomos (law), with physis ultimately presiding over nomos

Similar Essays

Neotextual Narrative And The Interpretation Of Stonehenge

2030 words - 8 pages 'constructivism' to denote the futility, and hence the paradigm, of posttextual class. Thus, the subject is contextualised into a dialectic materialism that includes art as a reality. The main theme of Hamburger's[11] model of neoconstructivist rationalism is the common ground between society and culture. It could be said that Porter[12] holds that we have to choose between neocultural textual theory and textual theory. The subject is interpolated

Comment On The Phylosophical Synthesis Of Karl Marx

5790 words - 23 pages are ultra-reactionary and a merciless war isnecessary against them. But, rationally understood, the idea of thewhole, that is taken in its relative opposition to its parts, in itsmaterialist characteristic, is correct. It is, however, in such aninterpretation found completely in Marx's dialectical materialism. Thereal dialectic of the whole and the parts, of quantity and quality, ofform and content, is given in Marx, and what is more, given on

Reality, The Mind, And God Essay

2680 words - 11 pages upon experiences. "The mind itself is a blank page upon which the ideas of experience are written" (Gould 289) in the view of the empiricist. Empiricism can easily be joined with materialism to understand the substance of reality and how the mind gains knowledge from its surroundings. Since materialism holds that reality is only consists of tangible elements, nothing else, and the philosophical view of empiricism stands on the assumption that


1007 words - 4 pages Running head: METAPHYSICS AND EPISTEMOLOGY PAPER 1 METAPHYSICS AND EPISTEMOLOGY PAPER 5 PHL 215 Metaphysics and Epistemology PaperEpistemology and Metaphysics Schools Paper Write a 1,050- to 1,750-word paper that includes the following information: Explain the historical development for each of the following schools of thought: o Skepticism o Rationalism o Empiricism o Realism o Idealism o Materialism o Determinism o Existentialism Day