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Rauner Essay

1243 words - 5 pages

Jean ZhangBest Fuel Lab: Comparing Enthalpy Changes ofDifferent Alcohols toDetermine Fuel EfficiencyIntroduction:The purpose of this experiment is to determine which of two types of alcohols, methanol (CH3OH) or ethanol (CH3CH2OH), is the more efficient fuel for human use. The higher the enthalpy change of combustion of an alcohol (measured in part by the temperature change of water caused by the alcohol), the better it is as a fuel.Balanced equations for the combustion of methanol and ethanol:Methanol combustion: CH3OH(l)+ O2 (g) --> CO2 (g)+ 2 H2O(l) +heat energyEthanol combustion: CH3CH2OH(l)+ 3 O2 (g) --> 2 CO2 (g) + 3 H2O(l)+heat energyIndependent variable- two types of alcohol, methanol and ethanolDependent variable- temperature change of water caused by heat released in the combustion of the alcohol, the enthalpy change, the amount of alcohol burnedControlled/constant variables- the amount of water (which will be heated), the distance from the tip of the alcohol burner (the wick) to the beaker of water, time alcohol burnedMaterials:Safety Materials:GogglesApronLab Materials:Provided alcohol burner containing methanol (over 150g)Provided alcohol burner containing ethanol (over 150g)100ml of distilled waterA 250ml beakerA 250ml graduated cylinderA stirring rodA pipetteA scientific thermometerAn electronic balanceA ring standWire GauzeMatches or a lighterStopwatchProcedures:1. Measure 100ml of distilled water into a 250ml graduated cylinder and pour into a 250ml beaker.2. Take the provided alcohol burner containing at least 150g of methanol. Measure and record the total mass (in grams) of the methanol and the alcohol burner with a balance.3. Set up the ring stand and place the wire gauze on top of the ring clamp.4. Place the beaker of 100ml of water on top of the wire gauze Adjust the ring clamp so that when the alcohol burner is placed under the clamp, the wick of the burner is 10cm from the wire gauze.5. Measure and record the temperature of the water with a thermometer.6. Use a match or lighter to light the wick of the alcohol burner containing the methanol. Stir the water in the beaker continuously with a stirring rod as it is being heated.7. Use a stopwatch to time the burning of the methanol. Put out the fire after 3 minutes of burning.8. Measure and record the final total mass of the alcohol burner and the methanol with a balance. Measure and record the final temperature of the distilled water with a thermometer.5. Repeat steps 1-8 for ethanol. Do three trials for each alcohol.6. Organize all data.7. Calculate the change in temperature of the water. Calculate the mass burned of each alcohol by subtracting the final total mass from the initial total mass for each. Take the average of the data for the two trials for both methanol and ethanol.8. Calculate the enthalpy change of the combustion of each alcohol using the given formula: Δ H= (mass)(specific heat capacity)(change in temperature)/ number of moles. Mass refers to the...

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