Razvojni Trendovi I Perspektive U Ergonomiji

3656 words - 15 pages

Razvojni trendovi i perspektive u ergonomiji1. Pojam ergonomijeErgonomija je u poslednjim desetle?ima imala vishe odre?enja. Sam naziv poti?e od dve gr?ke re?i (ergos - rad; nomos - pravila, zakoni), koju je u 19. veku, poljski nau?nik Jastrezebowski prvi put opisao u svom radu. Sto godina kasnije, 1949. u Londonu je osnovano samostalno stru?no-nau?no udru enje nazvano Ergonomics Research Society ?iji je cilj bilo istra ivanje uzajamnog uticaja ?oveka i radne sredine. Ovo udru enje je na slede?i na?in definisalo ergonomiju1:"Ergonomija na nau?nim osnovama istra uje uzajamni uticaj ?oveka i njegove radne sredine. Radna okolina u ovom kontekstu ne zna?i samo ?inioce fizi?kog okru enja, ve? i sredstva rada, materijale, nadalje metode rada, organizaciju rada, bilo da je re? o individualnom bilo o radu unutar grupe. Sve ovo je u vezi sa samim ?ovekom: njegovim sposobnostima, mogu?nostima i granicama njegovih mogu?nosti."2Pored izraza ergonomija postoji ?itav niz drugih naziva kao: Human Factors, Human Engineering, Human Factors Engineering, Man-Machine Engineering. Ovako veliki broj naziva se mo e objasniti time shto svaka nau?na disciplina sa svog stanovishta pristupa izu?avanju ovoga odnosa, otuda se sa pravom mo e govoriti o interdisciplini , odnosno, josh vishe o multidisciplini.Od navedenih naziva u Evropi se ustalio naziv ergonomija a u SAD "human factors".Autori Mark S. Sanders i Ernest J. Mclormick3 u sada ve? sedmom izdanju knjige ergonomija / human factors, na slede?i na?in definishu ovu disciplinu: human factors (ergonomija) otkriva i primenjuje sva ona saznanja o ponashanju ?oveka, sposobnostima, granicama njegovih mogu?nosti i drugim karakteristikama ?oveka koje treba imati u vidu prilikom konstruisanja sredstava rada, planiranja proizvodnih sistema, radnih zadataka, delokruga rada i same radne sredine, kao pretpostavke za ?ovekov delotvoran rad, i njegovo bezbedno i udobno anga ovanje (optimizing working and conditions).Poshto je ergonomija ushla u sve pore ivota postoji opasnost od njenog preteranog pojednostavljenja. To ?ini va nim da se ciljevi i zadaci ergonomije povremeno redefinishu i preciziraju u skladu sa razvojem nauke, privrede i drushtva. U cilju celovitog osvetljavanja pojma ergonomije, korisno je osvrnuti se na do sada najsveobuhvatniju definiciju, koja je objavljena u re?niku Human Factors / Ergonomics, 1993. godine.4 Po ovom re?niku zadatak Human Factors / Ergonomics-a je istra ivanje ?ovekovih psiholoshkih, socioloshkih, fizi?kih i bioloshkih osobenosti, nadalje sistematizovanje informacija dobivenih tokom istra ivanja kao i primena tih saznanja u planiranju proizvoda ili sistema, prilikom funkcionisanja ili upotrebe, sve u cilju optimiziranja ?ovekovog u?inka, njegovog zdravlja, sigurnosti i/ili ose?aja udobnosti - komfora.Primarni zadatak ergonomije je da obezbedi harmoni?an odnos izme?u ?oveka i njegovog tehni?kog okru enja.Ukoliko govorimo o ciljevima ergonomije tada isti?emo potrebu za dva paralelna nastojanja, i to...

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