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Responses Of The Government To Problems In Developing Countries (Look To Actual Essay For Full Heading)

930 words - 4 pages

“An enlightened governmental approach to the challenges faced in mega cities, is to realise its limitations and to encourage individuals and groups such as community, NGO’s, self help projects, to improve the standard of living”One of the key obstacles that the government must first realise and understand is that it cannot cater for all the challenges that arise in mega cities. Often, the government is forced to focus on the population in which will allow them to stay in power. This often means that government is forced to neglect the majority of the population and instead focus on those who are able to vote and will thus favour them and re-elect them in the next election. It is because of this, the government often relies on NGO’s, self help projects and the community to better cater for the areas that the government is forced to neglect. This can be seen in both the mega cities of Karachi and Mexico.The role of the community in response to the challenges the city faces, has changed dramatically over the past 30 years. In the past, the community role was concentrated on the provision of physical labour in the construction and maintenance of hardware. Gradually, this has changed to active involvement right from the beginning. This reflects a change in the role of the community from observer to manager in the project cycle. The process of community empowerment came as a result of evidence of success and an increased trust and belief in the ability of the community to come up with a long-term solution, in partnership with development agencies, and greater insight into the factors behind sustainability. This idea of ‘self help’ can especially be seen in Karachi with regards to the Orangi project.Orangi Township in Karachi was a massive squatter settlement with a population of 1.2 million. The infrastructure of the city dated back to 1960s when government agencies only constructed roads, basic water supply systems, electricity lines and schools and hospitals. Until the 1980s, most households had no access to sanitation facilities and used bucket latrines and soak pits for the disposal of human waste and open sewers for the disposal of waste, resulting in a high rate of water-borne diseases.The Orangi pilot project was initiated in 1980 by social scientist Dr Akhtar Khan. He established the project as a research organization whose objective was to analyse the problems of the Orangi settlement and then discover viable solutions. Its strategy was to help local people achieve their own development needs rather than rely on external sources of aid.The methods used include identifying local activists, providing training in community organisation and technical support, providing on-going support and guidance for the actual improvement work and simplifying designs so that they were affordable. Emphasis was placed on encouraging professionals and governments to support the people's initiatives. To date, local communities involved...

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