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Reading Analysis: “The Fundamental Principles Of The Metaphysic Of Morals”

664 words - 3 pages

In the essay titled “Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals” published in the Morality and Moral Controversies course textbook, Immanuel Kant argues that the view of the world and its laws is structured by human concepts and categories, and the rationale of it is the source of morality which depends upon belief in the existence of God. In Kant’s work, categorical imperative was established in order to have a standard rationale from where all moral requirements derive. Therefore, categorical imperative is an obligation to act morally, out of duty and good will alone. In Immanuel Kant’s writing human reason and or rational are innate morals which are responsible for helping human. Needless to say, this also allows people to be able to distinct right from wrong. For the aforementioned reasons, there is no doubt that any action has to be executed solely out of a duty alone and it should not focus on the consequence but on the motive and intent of the ...view middle of the document...

This statement states that even according to good will duty is not enough to justify act as moral. The categorical imperative stipulates that it is the sense of reason in human beings that demands a morally stable will; hence, acting according to this law, which is fundamentally based on judgment of actions, human beings would live in an ideological society. In his third section Kant investigates the critical examination of pure practical reasons. For Kant, each rational being has a freedom of the will and this is a basis of morality. Freedom of the will can never be disproven or proven because will is influenced by the force outside of the human body and humans use reason to determine the law themselves. Rational people recognize themselves as free according to the categorical imperative.
Though I found myself sometimes disagreeing with the philosophy by Immanuel Kant, I found his subjective reasoning to be thought-provoking. I was pulled by two different forces after Kant defined happiness as “the state of a rational being in the world in the whole of whose existence everything goes according to his wish and will.” This unconventional way of defining term of happiness strands away from the definition of happiness written by philosopher in the name of John Stuart Mill. Mill defines happiness as a state of “maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain.” In the writing, Immanuel argues that possession of wealth, health, or bravery can be used for afflicted purposes and these characteristics cannot be essentially good. To Kant, being worthy of happiness requires for one to possess a good will. The genuine good is the only unconditional good which is connected to a good will. Disastrous misfortunes can happen but the goodness of the will still remains. In this described above idea Immanuel provides a concrete support. According to my interpretation of the author’s idea and supporting statements, each day my actions consequentially are moderately influenced by Kant’s philosophy. I also believe that Mills, utilitarian philosophy also influences my everyday actions. Using these two different schools of thought I truly believe that I base my actions off of what I truly believe is the right thing to do. I also believe in acting upon what I believe is the right thing to do.

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