Real Life Application:
- In the view of previous literature, this anticipatory emotion has been widely applied in various areas such as healthcare, marketing and politics.
Richman, Kubzansky, Maselko, and Kawachi (2005) suggested that hope is believed to be one of the protective factors in both disease development and progression. They discovered that positive emotion such as hope can bolster one’s immune system, reduce stress and increase the search for health-relevant information (Garrard & Wrigley, 2009) while hopelessness is found to predict disease-specific mortality (Richman et al., 2005). For example, Banning and Tanzeem (2003) found that people who maintain their hope showed better coping ability in managing the uncertainty and diagnosis of the diseases (Anbar & Murthy, 2010). They are also more motivated, determined and hopeful to live a meaningful life despite of the diagnosis of the diseases such as breast cancer (Banning & Tanzeem, 2003). In contrast, hopeless patients tend to experience more pain and have greater risk of metastasis (Anbar & Murthy, 2010). For terminally ill patients, the healthcare providers have to foster hope in them without any deception such as lying about their poor prognosis because deception will give them unrealistic positive expectation and result in greater disappointment if the desired outcome is unable to attain (Garrard & Wrigley, 2009; Granek, Krzyzanowska, Tozer, & Mazzotta, 2013). Making these patients aware of the reality, hope itself helps them to orient towards sharing life experiences and maintaining integrity rather than focusing on own desired outcomes. It allows the patients to be open to experience the possibility and acknowledge the unattainable outcomes instead of holding unrealistic hope. Constant interaction with people is necessary to foster this absolute hope in the terminally ill patients and prevent them from social withdrawal (Garrard &Wrigley, 2009).
Furthermore, sense of hope is an essential theme in music therapy. McClean, Bunt and Davkin (2012) showed that connection with music, especially musical improvisation helps the patients in cancer care to foster a sense of hope by refreshing their thoughts and views of their future. For instance, the sense of hope is reflected as the patients are looking forward in the future to learn a musical instrument. Generally, hope serves an important function in the healthcare area.
2. Marketing and Consumer.
Many industries, particularly beauty industry always target what people usually desire and integrate the emotion of hope into the marketing strategy of their products. According to Maclnnis and de Mello (2005), what people always hope for revolves around perfect body image, romantic relationship and high self-esteem. With hope, people tend to be more motivated to achieve their desired goals (Cavanaugh, Cutright, Luce, & Bettman, 2011). Therefore, all the marketing strategies involve the inducement of hope in consumers by...