Reasons Why Downward Communication is More Prevalent in Organizations than Upward Communication
Definition of communication
According to Merriam Webster, communication is the ways of sending information to people by using technology. Besides that, Michael Joyce said communication is the imparting or exchanging of information by writing, speaking or using some other medium. For example, are ‘We firmly believed that theatre is an effective medium of communication,” said the spokesman of the company. Moreover, Jack Ronald also said communication means of sending or receiving information, such as computers or telephone lines. For example, is in an emergency, reliance on digital communications or even telephone lines is unacceptable.
Definition of downward communication
According to Audrey French downward communication means the flow of information from higher level of management to subordinate individuals working within a company. Business managers often need to be very skilled at downward communication in order to properly motivate the staff working under them in their organization. Besides that, Josh O’Connor said downward communication mean occurs when information and messages flow down through an organization's formal chain of command or hierarchical structure. In other words, messages and orders start at the upper levels of the organizational hierarchy and move down toward the bottom levels. Responses to downward communications move up along the same path. Next, according to Sarah Richard, downward communication is an integral part of the traditional organization and probably is still the most frequently used channel in the organization. It may be oral, written, visuals and by electronic devices. Usually, it is dominated by verbal means in form of personal talks, announcements, instructions, orders, etc.
Definition of upward communication
According to Bartol and Martin, upward communication is the vertical communication flows from lower level to one or more higher levels in the organization. Besides that, according to Ricky W. Griffin, upward communication consists of messages form subordinates to superior. Weihrich and Koontz said, upward communication travels from subordinates to superiors and continues up the organizational hierarchy. Moreover, according to Bovee and others, upward communication is the flow of information from lower level to higher levels in the organization.
The Importance of Communication in an Organization
Communication is the glue that holds organizations together. Communication assists organizational members to accomplish both individual and organizational goals, implement and respond to organizational change, coordinate organizational activities, and engage in virtually all organizationally relevant behaviours. Yet, as important as this process is, breakdowns in communication are pervasive. This idea was captured in a now famous line from the Oscar-winning movie Cool Hand Luke: “What we have is...