The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in southeast Europe with a total area of 33 700 km2. It is bordered in the west by Romania and in the north, east and south by Ukraine. The former Soviet state the Republic of Moldova became independent in 1991 and proclaimed a parliamentary republic. In the last 10 years Moldova is in a deep demographic crisis, it faces long-term population decline. In spite of a slight increase in the birth rate, the rate of negative population growth in Moldova increases. The negative or zero natural population growth infers that there are more deaths than births or an even number of deaths and births in a country.
The main factor causing negative population growth of Moldova is its economic problems. Post-soviet economic transition has caused great socioeconomic hardship in the country. The Republic of Moldova remains the poorest country in the European Region. The continuous severe economic downturn and immense unemployment rates are the key explanations of the large emigrant population: about 900,000 persons have fled the country in recent years to work abroad; it’s about 40% of the working age population. The adult population is forced to work abroad to support financially their families. Thus, parents leave their children with their retired parents who constitute the majority of Moldova’s population.
The political instability is another factor that causes population decline in the Republic of Moldova: there were 3 general elections and numerous presidential ballots in parliament in period of 3 years. Surely the political state is mostly affected by the economic issues in the country and has the same outcomes – the population emigrates.
Since the Republic of Moldova is a former Soviet republic there are a lot of ethnic groups. Generally they are in peace but there are some internal disputes between the ethnic Russian, Ukrainian, Gagauz and Moldovan which also result in the population migration.
The health status of the population is dreadfully low. Since independence both communicable and noncommunicable diseases have steadily increased. The World Health Organization provides the following data: the main causes of death in the Republic of Moldova are diseases of the circulatory system followed by cancer and diseases of the digestive system, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS, also the diseases resulted by a very heavy alcohol and tobacco consumption.
Moldova is a small country and has no access to sea, what explains the fact that it...