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Reciprocity Treaty Essay

5132 words - 21 pages

Rohan Anand Student #: 996880629A Detailed documentation and analysis of The Reciprocity Movement and Treaty of 1854

S. No.


Page No.





Historical Context






British Policy & The Treaty



Negotiations at Washington



Early Popularity and Criticism



Effects of Reciprocity



Abrogation of the Treaty



Reciprocity and the Confederation



Concluding Remarks


INTRODUCTIONGreat Britain's abrogation of protective tariffs in 1846 led Canada to look for new export opportunities for its products. It turned to its neighbour to the South, the United States1 and an agreement called, 'The Reciprocity Treaty' was signed on June 5th 1854, with the aim to regulate commercial relations between the United States and the British possessions in North America2 i.e. Canada. Reciprocity meant, the attempt to create in North America, a single market area, covering several distinct political jurisdictions, in which certain specified types of products could be freely exchanged.3 The Reciprocity treaty consisted of seven articles; the first two related to the fisheries, the third to reciprocal trade, the fourth to the navigation of the St. Lawrence river, the fifth to the duration and abrogation of the treaty, the sixth to the extension of the provisions of the treaty to Newfoundland and the last article, to the ratification of the treaty.4 Its principal provisions5 were; firstly, American fisherman were given free access to Canadian (British colonies) coastal fisheries and could land on-shore to dry nets and cure fish. Similarly, Canadian fishermen received the same privileges to American fisheries, north of the thirty sixth parallel. Secondly, import duties were abolished on a wide variety of products (grain, flour, coal, livestock, fish, timber etc.) imported into Canada (British North American colonies) from the USA and vice versa. Thirdly, vessels owned by the USA, were allowed to use the St. Lawrence and other Canadian canals on the same basis as domestic carriers. In turn, Canadian vessels were allowed similar privileges on Lake Michigan as well as recommended that the individual states take similar actions for canals under their jurisdiction.___________________________________1. as on Oct. 21st 20112. 'The Reciprocity Treaty of 1854' by Frederick E. Haynes (American Economic Association)3. 'Canadian Economic History' by Aitken and Easterbrook - Development Strategy: 1849 - 18674. 'The Reciprocity Treaty of 1854' by Frederick E. Haynes (American Economic Association)5. 'Canadian Economic History' by Aitken and Easterbrook - Development Strategy: 1849 - 1867HISTORICAL CONTEXTThe Canadian economy has always been linked in great part to its exports. Until the middle of the 19th century, Great Britain and its empire, which was comprised of various colonies,...

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