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Notes On Chapters Of Botany Covering The Topics: Multicellular Algae, Mosses/Ferns, Plants With Seeds, Seed Plant Reproduction, Plant Structure, And Control Of Plant Growth/Development

4201 words - 17 pages

Chapter 20: Multicellular AlgaeCharacteristics of Algae-Algae are photosynthetic organisms-Live in streams, ponds, lakes, oceans, and swamps-Must live in or near a source of water-Algae lack an internal system-Algae lack an internal system of tubes to move water and materials from one part to another-Water in which algae live provides CO2, oxygen, nutrients, and carries away wastes-Can be multicellular or unicellular-Algae cells have cell walls-Algae have chlorophyll a and other chlorphylls-Reproductive cycle alternates between sexual and asexual-Dispute over whether kingdom Protista or kingdom PlantaeAdaptations of Algae to Life Under Water-Do not need to worry about drying out-Many algae have very think, leaflike structure that's not waterproof-Structures can exchange nutrients, oxygen, CO2 with the water-Do not need stemlike structures-Water keeps them supported-Sexual reproduction is easier in water-Sex cells can swim through waterChlorophyll and Accessory Pigments-Major problem for water plants is lack of light for photosynthesis-Sea water absorbs red and violet which is what chlorophyll a uses best-Light becomes dimmer and bluer in color as depth of the water increases-Algae have evolved various forms of chlorophyll-All have a-B, C, D-Accessory pigments are light absorbing compounds-Absorb different wavelengths of light than chlorophyll absorbs-Pass on the energy they absorb to the photosynthetic structures-Reflect different wavelengths = give algae a wide range of colorsGroups of Algae-Colors provided by chlorophyll and accessory pigments and form in which food is stored are used to classify algaeChlorophyta - The Green Algae-Green algae live primarily in moist areas on land and in fresh water-Some live in oceans-A colony is a group of cells that are joined together and show few specialized structures, or structures that perform a particular function-Some single-celled algae form these-Algae have both sexual and asexual reproduction-Some have well developed specialized structures-Filaments are long threadlike colonies formed by many green algae-The c ells are shaped like soda cans stacked end on end-Spirogyra is a common example of filamentous green algae-Found in ponds and streams of Massachusetts-Can grow and reproduce asexually-Have a spiral chloroplast that winds around the cell as opposed to the common spherical chloroplastChapter 21: Mosses and FernsPlants Invade the Land-Over time, some plants adapted to life in drier environmentsThe First Land Plants-Fossil record doesn't show much information on the very early stages of evolution of land plants-Adaptation to life on land was long, slow process-First algae that could live out of water at least partially was 500-600 million y.a-Bryophyta (mosses, liverworts, hornworts) and Tracheophyta (ferns) evolved about 450-500 million y.aDemands of Life on Land-Requirements to live on land-All cells need constant supply of water, need the water delivered, need protection from evaporation-The...

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