Redox Essay

3431 words - 14 pages

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EQUILIBRIOS DE OXIDACIÓN-REDUCCIÓN (REDOX) 2º BACHILLERATO QUÍMICA
1.- Estado de oxidación. 2.- Concepto de oxidación y reducción. 3.- Ajuste de ecuaciones redox por el método del ión-electrón.
3.1. Reacciones en medio ácido. 3.2. Reacciones en medio básico.
4.- Valoraciones de oxidación-reducción. 5.- Pilas electroquímicas (células galvánicas). 6.- Potenciales de reducción estándar. Escala de potenciales.
6.1. Electrodo de hidrógeno. Pilas con hidrógeno. 6.2. Espontaneidad de los procesos redox.
7.- Electrólisis. 7.1. Aplicaciones. 7.2. Comparación de pilas y cubas electrolíticas. 7.3. Ecuación de Faraday.
8.- Aplicaciones industriales de procesos redox: 8.1. Corrosión. 8.2. Protección catódica.
1.-ESTADO DE OXIDACIÓN (E.O.) ( NÚMERO DE OXIDACIÓN).
"Es la carga que tendría un átomo si todos sus enlaces fueran iónicos, es decir, considerando todos los enlaces covalentes polares como si en vez de tener fracciones de carga tuvieran cargas
completas".
En el caso de enlaces covalentes polares habría que suponer que la pareja de electrones
compartidos están totalmente desplazados hacia el elemento más electronegativo.
El E.O. no tiene porqué ser la carga real que tiene un átomo, aunque a veces coincide.
Ejemplos
CO2: el átomo de C forma dos enlaces covalentes con dos átomos de O más electronegativo que él. Comparte los 4e
- , pero para saber cuales son los E.O. hay que suponer que el C los pierde, y que el
O los gana, con lo cual la carga que tendría el C sería "+4" y la del O "-2" , E.O. (C) = +4; E.O. (O) = -
2. El S tiene estados de oxidación +2, +4 y +6 según comparta 2, 4 o los 6 electrones de valencia con un
elemento más electronegativo (por ejemplo O).
Cálculo de estado de oxidación (E.O.).
La suma de los E.O. de una molécula neutra es siempre 0 y de un ion es igual a su carga eléctrica.
2.-DEFINICIÓN DE OXIDACIÓN Y REDUCCIÓN.
El término OXIDACIÓN comenzó a usarse para indicar que un compuesto incrementaba la proporción de átomos de Oxígeno.
Igualmente, se utilizó el termino de REDUCCIÓN para indicar una disminución en la proporción de oxígeno.

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Actualmente, ambos conceptos no van ligados a la mayor o menor presencia de Oxígeno. Se
utilizan las siguientes definiciones:
• OXIDACIÓN: Pérdida de electrones (o aumento en el número de oxidación). • REDUCCIÓN: Ganancia de electrones (o disminución en el número de oxidación).
Siempre que se produce una oxidación debe producirse simultáneamente una...

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