In Infant development, as newborns progress in their development, many changes occur. Neonates, newborns have preferences already for certain senses such as odor, tastes, sounds, and some visual configuration. However, through infancy a baby develop better senses of hearing, and vision. For example, at birth typically a child’s vision is 20/600 and will not reach 20/20 until age two. They can usually focus on objects or people that are up to 9 inches away and can following a moving finger. Newborns also prefer colored stimuli compared to gray ones, but do not develop full perception of color until they are about four months old.
Over the first 18 months of an infant’s life, motor skills also develop very progressively more. This development can primarily be linked to a process called maturation. Maturation is natural process where the genetically determined biological timetable develops. For example, many milestones, such as crawling, walking, sitting, and standing are recorded during maturation. These progressive actions are depended on by the growth and development of the central nervous system.
For example, watching my youngest son develop as an infant was very similar to the characteristics described in the textbook, especially his motor development. At first birth, my son was very active and responsive to even the slightest touch. He was able to turn and move his head in the direction of a sound and very responsive to my voice. Around 2 months of age, my youngest son was now able to lift his head, was starting to learn how to roll over on the floor, and could sit up when propped up against a pillow or hard surface. Around 5 and 6 months of age, he was able to sit without the support of anything or being propped up against a surface. By 9 months of age, Jarrett was able to standing on his own and was able to take a few small steps before tumbling on the floor. Right before reaching his first birthday, Jarrett was able to walk alone by his self and did not any support to guide him anymore.
During infancy, all infants usually have a strong attachment to either their mother or their primary caregivers. Many newborn babies prefer contact comfort, supplied by bodily contact, and suffer from separation anxiety when they are separated from their primary caregiver. Separation anxiety results in fear and distress of the newborn child and usually peaks when the infant is between 12 and 18 months. When an infant reaches 6 to 7 months of age, a fear of strangers, stranger anxiety arises, and this usually increases until the child’s first birthday.
Four patterns of attachment from Mary Ainsworth’s study after brief separation from their mother’s were identified and are most common. Some infants show patterns of secure attachment, where they are highly distressed when separated from their mother or caregiver. Infants who show a pattern of secure attachment are typically more responsive, obedient, and cooperative than other infants. Preschoolers...