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Reformation Essay

1008 words - 5 pages

In sixteenth century Europe, the revival for Roman Catholicism took place. This reformation in the Church is significantly important as it was during these times when Europe was all but mired by Protestant movements. This revival has often been referred to as the Catholic Counter-reformation, as a response against the Protestant Reformation. Christian humanism found expression, putting emphasis even on the pagan culture and philosophy. Controversies with the Protestants also gave way to the revival of scholasticism, giving way to a reformed papacy with its emphasis on spiritual life and service for the people. Such a papacy commanded respect from the Catholics as well as affirmed ...view middle of the document...

Although initially quite focused on his military career, this was cut short in 1521 at the siege of Pamplona. Ignatius had become inflicted with injuries and it was during this time that his interest in the lives of saints and Christ had sprouted, reading books about these subjects to while away his time. His readings prompted Ignatius to set out on a pilgrimage to Manresa, where he eventually embraced a new religious technique, ridding himself of satanic inner conflicts and focusing on the benevolent. Such a technique is a severe discipline for the spiritual, influence by Ignatius’ military upbringing (Simon, 1974).Ignatius set down his experiences in his Spiritual Exercises, which, to this day, provides exemplary insight into religious psychology.
Ignatius’ experiences eventually prompted him to seek education, believing that without the proper knowledge, he would not be able to accomplish anything. For nearly a decade, Ignatius dedicated himself to his pursuit of knowledge, during which he had acquired companions (Simon, 1974). The Society of Jesus (although not yet named) was born in 1534, with Ignatius and six companions dedicating themselves to God, vowing to do missionary work once completing their studies. In 1537, Ignatius and 10 companions were consecrated as priests in Venice, and it was during this period when the group adopted the name of Society of Jesus (Grimm, 1973).
Ignatius, as well as two companions, had traveled to Rome to offer their services. However, since their services were found redundant (similar to that of the Theatines) and they were often accused of heresy, the Society of Jesus had initially found difficulty in gaining recognition as an order from Pope Paul III. It was only in 1540, when the Contarini and King John III of Portugal lent their support, that the Society was recognized as an order through the Regimini militantis ecclesiae (Grimm, 1973). This bull, however, restricted the number of members to 60. By 1543, the Injuctum notis issued by Paul III.By 1545, Paul III signed a brief empowering the order to exercise their ministry independent of the Church and unbound by...

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