Regulation of blood glucose in the human body
Cannon (1989) used the term homeostasis to describe the consistency of the internal environment and the regulatory integrated mechanisms are directed to maintain it. He also stated that it was how the system responded to an emergency by trying to meet the sudden external demands which have been placed upon the human body (1). Homeostasis is important within the human body because it maintains the optimum environment required for various processes to occur. The human body cells are able to acquire energy from lipids; however nerve cells (neurons) rely completely on glucose. Therefore, the regulation of blood glucose it is human body is necessary to ensure the functioning of the nervous system as well as allowing cellular respiration to occur. (2)
Glucose is an organic molecule will provide an energy source towards the metabolic activities of the human body. It is also a key source of carbon skeletons for biosynthesis. The energy stored with the glucose molecule is released via a process called glycolysis. Glycolysis occurs during respiration. When it is fully broken down, glucose is converted into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This allows manageable amount of energy to be released to power the various biochemical reactions which occurs.
The two main hormones which are used to regulate the concentration of the blood glucose concentration are insulin and glucagon. In figure 1, it shows how the insulin and glucagon are able to regulate the blood glucose levels. Insulin decreases the blood glucose concentration while glucagon increases it; therefore they are known as the antagonistic hormones as they are opposites. If the blood glucose concentration is above 70-110mg/100mL, the beta cells with the pancreas begin to release insulin into the blood so stimulating the cells to absorb glucose from blood. This is able to occur because the insulin binds to receptors on the cell membrane which cause the cell to increase the amount of glucose transporters on its membrane. As shown in figure 2, this is able to occur because the insulin leads to a vesicle with glucose transporter on its membrane to fuse with the plasma membrane of the cell. The glucose transporters are able to increase the amount of glucose that can enter the cells therefore decreasing the overall glucose concentration in the blood. This process is able to happen more frequently in adipose and muscle tissue; however brain and liver tissue do not require insulin to enable the uptake of glucose. This is because their glucose transporters are not dependant on insulin which is adaptive because is enables them with constant access to glucose for respiration. If the blood glucose...