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Reign Of Terror Was During The French Revolution.

1810 words - 7 pages

The immediate bloody aftermath , was a product of social, economic, and political forces. The spirit of idealism that gripped France during the early phases of the Revolution gave way to mass paranoia and extremism, culminating in Robespierre's cruel regime. In the beginning of the French Revolution, Enlightenment of the French Revolution, known as the Reign of Terrorphilosophy seemed like a panacea for societal woes. Prominent philosophers like Rousseau, Voltaire, and Diderot contributed to a new mentality in France, one which instigated the mass revolt that caused the storming of the Bastille. The causes for the Reign of Terror in the 1790s cannot be isolated without examining first the leading causes of the French Revolution.Under the Reign of King Louis the XIV, France still maintained a basically feudalistic society in which the monarch ruled with divine and absolute authority. This "ancien regime" had persisted for centuries throughout Europe. A stratified social class structure dominated French culture and politics. The privileged classes, including the clergy and the nobility, were exempt from most of the taxes passed on to the poorest rungs of French society: the farmers, the common laborers, and the peasants. This system obviously benefited the wealthy, upper classes of French society, who were unwilling to sacrifice their economic and political privilege for a more just society. However, the monarchy and the "ancien regime" came under heavy criticism by Enlightenment thinkers, philosophers, and economists. Voltaire attacked the Church and its absolutism, criticizing the Church's political and intellectual dominion. Denis Diderot advocated a new social order, while Montesquieu advocated the adaptation of an English-style constitution. Rousseau's notion of popular sovereignty was perhaps the most influential political philosophies that influenced the beginnings of the French Revolution. Although the Revolution was spurned by these Enlightenment thinkers, the political philosophies they espoused failed to take root, leading to the Reign of Terror.The economic forces that led to the French Revolution also contributed greatly to the Reign of Terror in the 1790s. The Revolution started as a result of financial mismanagement on the part of the French government, who was contributing to overseas efforts in the New World. Participation in the American Revolution caused national debt, and in an attempt to avoid national bankruptcy, the Assembly of Notables was formed in 1787 to attract donations from the wealthy classes. However, the privileged people were unwilling to offer financial support. King Louis the XVI and his government were forced to quickly adopt a plan of financial reform.The three class divisions in French society, the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners, held specific grievances toward the state. This generalized discontent and unrest led to the Revolution. The commoners, who were known collectively as the Third Estate,...

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