Relational and Object-oriented Database Management Systems
A database is a “shared collection of logically related data designed to meet the information needs of multiple users in an organization” (Hoffer 709). Databases contain data records or files, such as sales transactions, product catalogs and inventories, and customer profiles. Databases allows multiple users in an organization to easily access, manage, store, and update data when needed.
A database management system is software designed to assist in maintaining and utilization large collections of data, and the need for such systems and their use. The first general-purpose database management system (DBMS) was designed by Charles Bachman who worked for General Electric in 1960. The original system was actually called the Integrated Data Store and was used to form the basis for the network data model.
Later, IBM developed its’ own version of DBMS and called it the Information Management System (IMS) DBMS. IMS eventually formed the structure for an alternative data representation framework called the hierarchical data model. This new system allowed several people to access the same data through a computer network.
Although there may be innumerable advantages of using a DBMS to manage data, there are six worth mentioning. First, data is independent. Second, there is efficient data access. A DBMS uses a variety of techniques to store and retrieve data. This allows for data to be sorted in additional places such as external storage devices. Third, the DBMS can enforce data integrity and security by enforcing access controls that govern what data is visible to different users.
A fourth advantage of using a DBMS is centralized data administration. When several users share the same data, centralizing data reduces redundancy and helps make retrieval of data more efficient. Fifth, DBMS can schedule concurrent access to the data, where when more than one user is accessing the data; users are protected from the possibility of system failures. Sixth, DBMS can reduce application development time since DBMS supports many important functions common to the many applications (Ramakrishnan 8-9).
There are some disadvantages to using a DBMS that must be taken into consideration however. For example, a DBMS is complex software best used with certain kinds of workloads. This relates to its performance not being adequate for certain specialized applications. Second, another application may have to manipulate entered data in order to manage. This can create a problem if the second application does not support the designed query language.
Developers of DBMS software are generally diverse in numbers and chosen fields. IBM and Oracle are two popular ventures for DBMS developers. Each venture has its own Database Administrator that manages DBMS for that place of business. The Database Administrator often designs schemas, provides security, and restores the system...