Combination of soft tissues and skeletal anomalies have been shown to be associated with the development of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study examined the hypothesis that clinically derived craniofacial measurements can be used in prediction of OSAHS severity.
All subjects underwent overnight polysomnography after craniofacial photographic performations. They divided in to three groups based on their apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Then photographic craniofacial measurements including mandibular width, intercanthal width and nose width were compared in these three groups.
There is a significant correlation between OSAHS severity and ...view middle of the document...
The aim of this study were to compare the surface facial dimensions including nose width, Intercanthal width and mandibular width of Iranian patients with mild, moderate and severe OSAHS. Since craniofacial photogrammetry and image analysis software is more available than imaging technique (such as CT and MRI) and less expensive, photogrammetry has used in this study. OSAHS patients divided into subgroups according to the severity of the disorder to compare the craniofacial variables and also to test the validity of cephalometric predictors to identify the people at risk for OSAHS.
Materials and Methods:
In this cross sectional study subjects complaining of snoring, daytime sleepiness and dyspnea referred to a private sleep disorder clinic for polysomnography from January to dacember 2013 were enrolled.
From selected subjects those with craniofacial anomalies associated with syndromes (such as apert and crouzon), excessive facial hair, previous facial trauma which affected facial landmarks, systemic disease (such as renal failure, thyroid dysfunction) and psychiatric disorders were excluded from the study.From which those with apnea/hypopnea index values grater than 5 were selected finally.
Written informed consent was obtained from each participants after explaining the method and aim of the study.
Patients with OSAHS were divided in to three groups based on their apnea/hypopnea index (mild group with 5≤AHI<15; moderate group with 15≤AHI<30; and severe group with 30≤AHI). Cephalometric measurements were compared between these three groups.
Face and neck digital photographs were taken following a standardized procedure on the same day as the polysomnography.
Photographs obtained with the patients seated upright in a straight ahead and in the extended head position using a single lens reflex digital camera (SX 220 HS 50-70 mm lens; Canon, Japan). Bony landmarks were pre identified on the patients by palpation and marked with red tapes. Pixel measurements were converted to metric dimensions using image analysis software (image J1, 44p; java1.6.0-20[32-bit], 41scommands; 58 macros).
These measurements represented mandibular width (distance between right mandibular angle and left mandibular angle), intercanthal width and nose width.
Each patient had full overnight polysomnography and the severity of OSAH was recorded using the AHI.
Date analyzed using SPSS ver. 20(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Continuous and categorical variables...