TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS (T2DM)
This type of diabetes commonly occurs in the later stage of life but due to increase in obesity; it also occurs in young adult. Type 2 diabetes can be defined as insulin resistant and insulin deficiency in the blood stream.
Obesity can be defined as been overweight with excess accumulated body fat by subcutaneously and viscerally; resulting in a high body mass index (BMI) which has negative effects on health (Taylor et al, 2010). BMI is defined by dividing an individual’s weight in kilogram by the square of the individual’s height in meters (kg/m2) which indicates if the individual is underweight, overweight or obese; having a BMI equal to or more than 25kg/m2 is classed as overweight while having a BMI equal to or more than 30kg/m2 is classed as obese (World Health Organisation, 2013). Health and Social Care Information Centre (2014) classified BMI status based on the following ranges:
• Underweight –under 18.5kg/m2
• Normal – 18.5kg/m2 to 25kg/m2
• Overweight – 25kg/m2 to 30kg/m2
• Obese – 30kg/m2 to 40kg/m2
. Obese 1 – 30kg/m2 to 35kg/m2
. Obese 2 – 35kg/m2 to 40kg/m2
• Morbidly obese – 40kg/m2 and over
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF OBESITY AND TYPE 2 DIABETES
In England, the normal BMI of adults from the year 1993 to 2012 decreased from 41% to 32.1% among men and from 49.5% to 40.6% among women; the number of adults classed as obese increased between 1993 and 2012 from 13.2% to 24.4% among men and from 16.4% to 25.1% among women (Health Social Care Information Centre, 2014). Obesity can also be diagnosed or measured using the waist circumference. A high waist circumference can be defined as higher than 102cm for men and higher than 88cm for women (Health Social Care Information Centre, 2014). Research shows that waist to hip ratio measurement is preferred than BMI by some healthcare professionals because it distinguishes body fat mass and muscular physique mass (Reidpath et al, 2013). In 2012, statistics shows an increase of waist circumference in older age groups and women were prone to have a high waist circumference to men; the percentage of adults with a high waist circumference has increased from 20% to 34% among men and from 26% to 45% among women between 1993 and 2012 (Health Social Care Information Centre, 2014). This shows that an increasing number of the British public are suffering from obesity.
Ji and Friedman (2007) state that obesity or overweight can be due to rich fat food consumption and is influenced by a genetic predisposition in humans. As explained above, type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by various genetic and ecological factors. Genetic or inherited factors help determine human’s susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes and obesity is an ecological risk factor in developing diabetes type 2 (Park, 2011). The combination of inherited susceptibility with ecological factors can generate a positive energy balance, which produces an excessive amount of...