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Relationship Between Orthodontic Treatment And Crohn’s Disease

2177 words - 9 pages

Crohn’s disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease that alters the gastrointestinal tract causing inflammation of the bowel that affects many Americans, with the number of diagnoses rising constantly. Orthodontic braces, worn by millions of Americans, are a type of dental treatment designed to straighten and align teeth for not only a beautiful smile but for a healthy mouth and jaw. A common link between CD and the application of braces are the occasional flare-up of canker sores. The scraping of braces against the skin in the mouth may cause irritation, resulting in the formation of canker sores. Additionally, the appearance of oral lesions, or canker sores, is often an indicative side effect of CD, as well as other factors, such as stomach irritation. The goal of the research is to discover a potential link between the application of braces and the coinciding cankers that form to find a common connection with the development of CD. The hypothesis is that the canker sores that develop due to the application of braces are related to a shift in the oral microbiota, and this shift is thought to contribute to the development of CD.
Experiment 1: Find a connection between braces and canker sores by testing the microbiota using HOMIM.
Based on aim 1 of the experiment, the goal is to find a connection between braces and canker sores by testing the microbiota. For this test, participants will have the oral microbiota profiled based on those with braces and those that do not have braces, with a special focus on canker sore formation. Each of the participants will have an oral examination completed before the experiment is performed and again after its conclusion, to detect any differences that could occur with canker sores. This test will separate the participants into four groups: those with braces and canker sores; those with braces and no canker sores; those without braces and with canker sores; and those without braces and without canker sores. All participants will brush their teeth using only water before the samples are taken from the mouth so there is no effect caused from toothpaste. The microbiota will be profiled using Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), which will detect any shift in the bacterial community. To complete HOMIM testing accurately and with the best results, the sample must be prepared properly. The recommended DNA isolation protocol suggests lysing the DNA and then using a clean-up technique. To complete this procedure, the sample is suspended in lysis buffer and Ready-Lyse Lysosome is added to each sample to be incubated overnight. Next, 2XT and C Lysis Solution is added, followed by Proteinase K, then incubated at 65ºC for 30 minutes, vortexing the samples every 5 minutes. The samples are then cooled to 37 ºC and placed on ice for 3-5 minutes. The following steps are required for proper DNA clean-up. First, MPC Protein Precipitation Reagent is added to the lysed sample and vortexed for 10 seconds. The sample is...

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