Comparative Analysis of Modernization
Afghanistan and Japan
“The concept of modernization comes from a view of societies as having a standard uni-linear evolutionary pattern, as described in the social evolutionism theories” (Modernization). Modernization is the process of transition from a traditional and pre-modern society to a modern society. Societies must follow this process to achieve modernity. Also, urbanization and industrialization are two other processes that are linked to modernization. It can be said that thesetwo are the vehicles for the achievement of modernity.From the 16th to 19th century, modernization was introduced in European countries (Twente)through a long process of war making and state making. Europeans build up their military, economy, and culture via this process and became modernized countries. Then in 20th century, the term modernization was transferred to the whole world. Modernization theory was used very well in some countries which were eager for the rapid development including Japan.By looking at the history of modernization in the whole world, we cognize that the process of modernization succeed in some societies but failed in some other societies despite of their effort to apply the process. Afghanistan is one of those countries that has actually failed in the process of modernization; however Japan is an example of countries who have succeed in becoming a modernized society. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the process of modernization theories that have failed in Afghanistan but were successful in Japan and obstacles that this process faced in Afghanistan.
Historical Background of Modernization:
The first modernization process of Afghanistan was started during King Amanullah. His reforms had two phases. The first phase started after getting independence for the country, and the second one was started after his tour to European countries. When Amanullah came back from the tour, he saw Afghanistan so backward and he immediately initiated some radical reforms. He tried to quickly modernize Afghanistan (Sikal, 2004). Actually,the idea of modernization in Afghanistan came by Amanullah and Tarzi, and it was right after the treaty of Rawalpindi was signed. They imagined a complete and radical transformation of Afghanistan to a modern society. They thought of four objectives to bring modernization to the country. First was to form a formal legal system for a constitutional monarchial government. Second one was to institute an Islamic and liberal process for development of economic infrastructure and social-cultural change. Third one was to build effective and efficient armed forces. And, the last objective was to enforce appropriate methods for mobilizing the afghan micro-societiesinto a united macro society (Sikal, 2004). Although Amanullah implemented his own modernization and development plans in the country, but due to obstacles his plans faced,his plans failed in...