Renal System Diseases Essay

607 words - 3 pages

The renal system consist of two kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra. the kidneys regulate circulating fluid in the body such as electrolytes, hormones, and also eliminates fluids(ATI. 628). Acute renal faliure is the leading cause of death among hospitalized patients and over half of them is due to a iatrogenic cause (ATI 629). Acute renal failure are categorized by prerenal, internal, and post acute renal failure. Prerenal is the most common resulting in hypo fusion and ischemia. common causes of ARF are hemorrhage, cardiac dysrhthmias, anaphylaxis, dehydration, and an embolism (Rosdal). Intra renal is when damage is done inside the kidney and is usually irreversible. glomerulonephritiis, nephrotic toxicity, and acute tubular nephrosis are some examples of intra renal risk factors. post renal is the obstruction of structures leaving the kidneys like renal calculi, urinary tract obstruction, and spinal cord disease. ARF is when the blood flow through the kidneys is significantly compromised and cannot filter the blood properly. there are four phases of acute renal failure they are onset, oliguria, diuresis, and recovery.
When assessing for ARF there are fluid overloads that we look objective data for in the renal,cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory reproductive, neurological, and muscular skeletal systems. we are looking for hypertension, peripheral edema, heart failure, orthostatic hypertension, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, metallic taste, stomatitis, decreased skin turgor, pruritus, diarrhea, jaundice. Subjective data includes fatigue, lethargy, restless leg syndrome, depression, intractable hiccups.
To test kidney function we must do laboratory test to check urine for hematuria, proteinuria, glucosuria, decreased osmolarity. also we do serum creatine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test to check kidney function. BUN, creatine, potassium, and phosphorus are usually elevated in ARF. (rosdahl) Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels are...

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