Rene Descartes And A Discription Of His Dream And Evil Demon Conjectures, Method Of Doubt, And Clear And Distinct Testing. Also, The Bad And Good Of His Theory (Opinion).

4572 words - 18 pages

Tema:Rene Dekart - život i delaRené DescartesSADRŽAJŽivotFilozofijaRasprava o metodiRes cogitans i res extensaO boguRazumPravilaIntuicija, dedukcija i indukcijaO strastima dušeMatematikaNaukaZnačajLiteraturaŽivotDekart Rene (Descartes René, latinski Renatus Cartesius) rođen je 31. marta 1596. u La Eju (La Haye) u Francuskoj. Bio je član imućne građanske porodice koja je dala nekoliko učenih ljudi. Otac mu je bio advokat i sudija, pa nije imao mnogo vremena za porodicu. Majka mu je umrla godinu dana posle njegovog rođenja, pa je njega, brata i sestru podizala baka u La Eju. 1604. godine, kada je imao osam godina, poslat je u jezuitsku školu u La Flesu (La Flèche) gde se učila aristotelovska filozofija prirode, logika, fizika, metafizika i matematika. Zapravo, nastava se svodila na komentarisanje Aristotelovih dela. Imao je problema sa zdravljem, pa je dobio dozvolu da ostaje u krevetu do jedanaest sati ujutru. Tamo je učio do 1612. Zatim se upisao na Univerzitet u Puatijeu (Poitiers) gde je učio prava i godinu dana kasnije diplomirao. Ipak, nikada se nije bavio pravom. 1618. je postao član armije princa Morisa od Nassaua, vođe Ujedinjenih Holandskih Provincija sa namerom da nastavi vojnu karijeru. Iako postoje razlozi za mišljenje da je mogao biti vojnik, većina biografa raspravljaju o tome da je više verovatno da su njegove dužnosti bile orijentisane prema obrazovanju ili inžinjerstvu. Sledećih godina Dekart je služio i u drugim armijama, ali su njegovu pažnju već privukli problemi matematike i filozofije kojima je posvetio ostatak života. Bio je u Italiji od 1623. do 1624, a godine od 1624. do 1628. proveo je u Francuskoj. Dok je bio u Francuskoj posvetio se proučavanju filozofije i ekspermentisao u oblasti optike. 1628. godine, pošto je prodao svojinu u Francuskoj, odselio se u Holandiju, gde je proveo veći deo ostatka života. U to vreme je radio na delu "Pravila za rukovođenje umom" (Praktična i jasna pravila upravljanja duhom u istraživanju istine; De rugulus utilibus et claris ad ingenii directionen in veritatis inquisitione). Verovatno je tokom prvih godina boravka tamo napiao svoje prvo veliko delo "Filozofski eseji" (Essais philosophiques) koje je objavljeno 1637. Delo je imalo četiri dela: esej o geometriji "Geometrija" (La Geometrie), esej o optici "Dioptrija"(La Dioptrique), esej o meteorima "Meteori" (Les Meteores) i "Rasprava o metodi" (Rasprava o metodi - pravilnog upravljanja umom i traženja istine u naukama; Discours de la Méthode - pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la vérité dans les sciences) koja je opisivala njegove filozofske pretpostavke. Delovi o optici i meteorima je trebalo da budu u okviru većeg dela "Svet" (Le Monde), međutim kada je "Svet" 1633. bio spreman za...

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