3.5 The destination competitiveness
As economy has a direct influence on the tourism industry, consequently the economic measures will be represented in the report. World Economic Forum bases its competitiveness analysis on the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI). GCI is a comprehensive tool that measures the microeconomic and macroeconomic foundations of national competitiveness. There are three sub-indexes which are important to build the general picture of the country: basic requirements index, efficiency enhancers, innovation and sophistication factors. Basic requirements index contains infrastructure, macroeconomic environment, health and primary education. Efficiency enhancers contain higher education, training, market size, labor and financial market efficiency. Business sophistication and innovation contain in the last sub index. The maximum rank is 148 for all factors as 148 countries participated in the evaluation. Zambia’s GCI is 93, basic requirements are 104, efficiency enhancer’s are 101 and innovation and sophistication factors are 61 during 2013-2014. Zambia’s competitiveness is weakened especially by social sustainability issues. There is some improvement concerning sanitation, drinking water and healthcare services. Nevertheless all these items are still very limited and with addition of low level of employment have negative effect on the social dimensions. Regarding the environmental sustainability, Zambia’s level is above average. It has strict regulations, keeps the level of CO2 emissions low and protects the land (World economic forum, 2013).
Secondly, tourism aspects will be analyzed in order to present clearer picture about the destination competitiveness. The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 is published by the World Economic Forum. The most important measure is TTCI, which means The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index. It aims to measure the factors and policies that make it attractive to develop the tourism sector in different countries. TTCI contains three categories as well: the Travel and Tourism regulatory framework sub index (policy related), the Travel and Tourism business environment and infrastructure sub index and the Travel and Tourism human, cultural, and natural resources sub index. Zambia’s TTCI is 108 out of 140. In this case 140 countries were evaluated. The Travel and Tourism regulatory framework sub index is 102. The Travel and Tourism business environment and infrastructure sub index is 122. The Travel and Tourism human, cultural, and natural resources sub index is 98 (World economic forum, 2013). The detailed comparison of the main competitors of Zambia can be found in Appendix B.
All in all, if economic and tourism measures are evaluated, it can be found that the major competitors of Zambia are neighboring African countries such as Botswana, South Africa and Namibia. The strongest competitor to Zambia and to other South African countries is South Africa. Unique selling point of...