Report On Citizenship

1466 words - 6 pages

Report on Citizenship

Citizenship is the relationship between a person and the country they
live in and support, and in return receive protection from. A person
is usually a citizen of the country they are born in, but in some
situations you can apply to change your citizenship to another
country.

Political Rights

Political rights mean equality before the law, universal suffrage,
etc. — can only be the rights of abstract human beings, rights which
abstract from the real differences in wealth, privilege, education,
occupation, kinship etc.

Natural Rights

Natural rights are a political theory that maintains that an
individual enters into society with certain basic rights and that no
government can deny these rights. The modern idea of natural rights
grew out of the ancient and medieval doctrines of natural law , i.e.,
the belief that people, as creatures of nature and God, should live
their lives and organize their society on the basis of rules and
precepts laid down by nature or God. With the growth of the idea of
individualism, especially in the 17th cent., natural law doctrines
were modified to stress the fact that individuals, because they are
natural beings, have rights that cannot be violated by anyone or by
any society. Perhaps the most famous formulation of this doctrine is
found in the writings of John Locke . Locke assumed that humans were
by nature rational and good, and that they carried into political
society the same rights they had enjoyed in earlier stages of society,
foremost among them being freedom of worship, the right to a voice in
their own government, and the right of property. Jean Jacques Rousseau
attempted to reconcile the natural rights of the individual with the
need for social unity and cooperation through the idea of the social
contract . The most important elaboration of the idea of natural
rights came in the North American colonies, however, where the
writings of Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, and Thomas Paine made of
the natural rights theory a powerful justification for revolution. The
classic expressions of natural rights are the English Bill of Rights
(1689), the American Declaration of Independence (1776), the French
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789), the first 10
amendments to the Constitution of the United States (known as the Bill
of Rights, 1791), and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the
United Nations (1948).

Positive Rights

Since the concept of rights limits the actions of the government, the
only way to circumvent them is by adding new rights that are allegedly
superior to the others. The concept of Positive Rights was developed.
These new rights differ from the old rights. Instead of involving
freedom from interference from others, these new rights demand goods
and...

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