Republicanism and direct democracy, these are two ways that a people can be governed. There is a major difference between these two systems. In a republican system the government represents the people. The representatives are chosen by popular vote and are given the power to make decisions on behalf of the people. The people do not get to voice their own opinions, the best they can do is vote for their representative and hope he wins. This can also be referred to as indirect democracy. Direct democracy which was exemplified in the ancient Athenian city-state, or the New England town meeting in modern times, is a government based solely on the people. The governmental decisions are passed only if the majority of the people vote for it. "People", that is the key word, the people themselves are included in making political decisions.
Race: the descendants of a common ancestor; distinct variety of human beings; lineage. These are the definitions the dictionary gives for race. However, what really is race? And what causes human beings to dislike a specific race? There are many who disagree as to what the answers to these questions are. I would like to discuss two specific writers that argue about this issue, W.E.B. Du Bois and Manning Marable.
According to Du Bois there are two aspects that differentiates one race from another. Firstly, all humans differ in regard to their physical attributes (hair color, skin color), plus language also differs widely among humans. These differences, says Du Bois, plays a great part in diminishing one's ability to better himself in society; " Any striving, no matter how intense and earnest, which is against the constitution of the world is in vain." The constitution of the world is that if you are different, physically, then your chances in making it are slim to none. The second factor that differentiates races and binds certain groups together are different histories, laws and religions, habits of thought, and striving for certain ideals of life. This factor really stems from the first difference, its just going a little deeper into discovering the answers to the two questions. To sum it all up, in the words of Du Bois, "The whole process which has brought about these race differences has been a growth... the differentiation of spiritual and mental differences between great races of mankind and the integration of physical differences."
Manning Marable raises an interesting point, in the world today, blacks have become more actively involved in politics, education, and are financially better off. However, in direct proportion to this, harassment and violence towards the blacks have increased tremendously. "Despite their gains, many blacks felt that the goal of racial harmony, and integration into the American mainstream was more distant than ever before", as Marable puts it. The reason behind the problems that are affecting the blacks is "race." This means according to Marable that,...