History Of Sex Research Essay

924 words - 4 pages

Greeks to 1900*Early knowledge gained from watching animals*400 B.C. Aristotle, "History of Animals, Parts of Animals, and Generation of Animals,"-foundation of western sexology-developed classification system: reproduction by sexual, asexual, and spontaneous generation*During this period, believed male contributed the seed, the woman brought to fruition.*Plato - wandering uterus causes hysteria in women*1600: Vesalius-discounted wandering uterus theory-female anatomy still misunderstood*1653 William Harvey: discovered importance of female egg to reproduction by studying animals*1678 Anton van Leeuwenhoek-used early microscope to identify sperm as "seed"-compared healthy/unhealthy men-sperm survived longer in warm environment-coined term: "spermatozoa"-reasserted idea of male supremacy in reproduction*1873 Eduard van Beneden: fertilization the result of two half sets of chromosomes joining to form full set*354-430 St. Augustine - ideal Christian life one of celibacy*1668-1738 Dutch, Hermann Boehaave, "Institutiones Medicae" -"rash expenditure of semen brought on a lassitude, a feebleness, a weakening of motion, fits, wasting, dryness, fevers, aching of the cerebral membranes, obscuring of the senses, and above all the eyes, a decay of the spinal chord, a fatuity, and other like evils."*all non-procreative sex "dangerous" - fornication better than masturbation*Doctors expected to give medical advice about sexuality-infertility not understood-sexual activity potentially dangerous*Protestants & Puritans: sex within marriage a source of pleasure*One physician published case history:-"the husband had the fatal habit of applying the tongue and lips to his wife's genitals to provoke in her venereal orgasm."-believed woman's life may be in danger-husband may develop cancer of the tongue*Women must be careful not to enjoy sex-women expected to be maternal, not sexual-diseased women had "excessive animal passion"*Elizabeth Osgood Goodrich Willard-coined term "sexology"-"humankind must stop the waste of energy through the sexual organs, if we would have health and strength of body. Just as sure as that the excessive abuse of the sexual organs destroy their power and use, producing inflammation, disease, and corruption, just so sure it it that a less amount of abuse in the same relative proportion, injures the parental function of the organs and impairs the health and strength of the whole system. Abnormal action is abuse."*Preventative measures:-perforated foreskin of the penis-applied ointments that severely increased sensitivity-applied hot irons to the inner thighsHomosexuality & Sex Research*1825 Karl Ulrichs:-argued that homosexual men had "female element" -> homosexual activity acceptable-argued homosexuality was congenital*1840-1902 Krafft-Ebing:-viewed sexual behavior as pathological-"Psychopathia Sexualis" - coined terms for homosexuality, fetishism, sadism, masochism-Sadism - named after Marquis de Sade-Masochism - named after Leopold...

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