1. (1 pts) What is the title of the article?
Chronic Oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans
2. (1 pts) Who are the authors?
Benjamin T. Wall, Francis B. Stephens, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Kanagaraj Marimuthu, Ian A. Macdonald, Paul L. Greenhaff
3. (1 pts) What journal was the article published in?
The Journal of Physiology
4. (1 pts) In what year was the article published?
5. (2 pts) Based on the introduction section of the article, what was the research question that prompted this study? It may not be explicitly stated, and there may be more than one; you will have to read the introduction and interpret what question is driving the study.
The question that prompted this study came from several studies. There have been several studies with positive results of I.V. infusion of carnitine and the delay of depletion in muscle glycogen but none from ingesting carnitine. Through ingestion of carnitine, if there was an increase of carnitine in the muscle, it will increase muscle fat oxidation which would then lead to a delay of depletion in muscle glycogen.
6. (2 pts) What did the authors hypothesize?
The authors hypothesized four things. First, the authors wanted to see if constant feeding of L-carnitine and carbohydrates to the participants would increase the muscle TC content just as they observed from I.V. infusion of the L-carnitine. Second, they hypothesized that if there was any amount of increase in the muscle content would cause a decrease in PDCA and flux when low intensity exercise was performed leading to a decrease in the usage of muscle glycogen. Third they hypothesized, during high intensity exercise as the body switches the primary role of carnitine to acetyl group buffering, the by increasing the content of muscle carnitine they would see an increase in the delivery of ATP which would cause a decrease in anaerobic ATP production and lactic acid being produced during exercise. Lastly, the authors hypothesized, from the positive effects of the muscle carnitine loading it would ultimately improve the performance of exercise at high intensities.
7. (3 pts) What was the nutritional component of the experimental treatment? Include what was consumed, the dosage, the frequency and duration of intake, and the timing of intake in relation to exercise.
When the participants reported to the lab they it would be after an overnight fast and restraining from any alcohol for 48 hours and caffeine for 24 hours before. The first group they consumed 700 ml solution made up of 80 grams of orange-flavored carbohydrate polymer, twice a day, at breakfast time and four hours later, for 168 days. The second group consumed 80 grams of orange-flavored carbohydrate polymer which also contained 2.0 grams of L-carnitine tartrate mixed into a 700 ml solution. They consumed the solution twice a day, at breakfast time and four hours...