Sheen, Y. (2007). The effect of focused written corrective feedback and language aptitude on ESL learner’s acquisition of articles. TESOL Quarterly, 4 (2), 255-283.
This study investigated the efficacy of two types of written corrective feedback (direct feedback with metalinguistic explanation and direct feedback only) as well as their correlation with language analytic ability.
Method and results
There were three questions the researcher aimed to answer in this study:
1. Does focused written corrective feedback (CF) have an effect on intermediate ESL learners' acquisition of English articles?
2. Is there any difference in the effect of direct correction with and without metalinguistic feedback on ESL learners' acquisition of English articles?
3. To what extent does the learners’ language analytic ability mediate the effectiveness of CF?
To answer these questions, the researcher designed a quasi-experimental studies with its procedures described in the following diagram:
Five English native speaker instructors and 91 intermediate level ESL students took part as participants in this study. The students came from various L1 background and were international student as well as immigrant students, ranging from 21 to 56 years old. The students were then divided into two control groups (direct correction only and direct correction with metalinguistic explanation) and one control group.
The language analytic ability test was a 14 items of multiple choices test, asking students to pick the best translation of short English phrases in an imaginary language. The pretest, posttest, and immediate post comprised of three similar tests: (1) speed dictation test, containing 14 items that should be completed in 8 minutes, (2) writing test, asking students to rewrite a short narrative text in 12 minutes, and (3) error correction test, in which students were asked to correct 17 items of grammatically incorrect sentence.
The data were computed using a set of statistical calculations, including one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc multiple comparison test, repeated measures ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Pearson product moment correlation test.
The result revealed that both groups that received written CF received higher scores in the speed dictation test, writing test, and error correction test than the control group. This indicated that focused written CF was effective in promoting intermediate ESL leaners’ acquisition of English articles.
The group that received direct correction...