What of the Spartans?
Q: “ With which he had been charged, it pleased them well to come to help the Athenians,”
(Herodutus, Histories, 6.109).
I: The Spartans responded that they were willing to assist the Athenians.
A: The Spartans, though unwilling to leave the state unprotected, agreed to assist the Athenians under the Persian threat. They were partly eager to protect Hellas from further damages and partly because they were curious about this Barbarians; the Spartans had never seen them and definitely never fought them. Therefore by these several motivations, the Spartans set forth to Athens.
Q: “ It was the ninth day of the month, and on the ninth day they said they would not go ...view middle of the document...
Their primary mission was to investigate these Persians, so they marched to Athens immediately after full moon.
Q: “ They desired to behold the Medes; and they went out to Marathon and looked at the bodies of the slain,” (Herodutus, Histories, 6.120).
I: The Spartans went to inspect the dead bodies of the Persians at Marathon.
A: The Spartans were curious at the Barbarians, since they had never fought them. Therefore, they went to check out the casualties at the battle of Marathon. Even though disappointed that the Athenians had not lost their battle, they carefully investigated the Persians and then departed to Sparta.
Q: “ They departed home, commending the Athenians and the work which they had done,”
(Herodutus, Histories, 6.120).
I: The Spartans exalted the Athenians for their victory and returned to Sparta.
A: The Spartans, having arrived at Athens hastely and found the battle already finished, praised the Athenians and left Athens. The Spartans and the Athenians were long rivalries. In fact, Sparta wanted the Athenians to be reduced to slavery, so that they will remain in power. Though disappointed that the Persians did not beat Athens, the Spartans still acclaimed them for their victory.
What is learned of the Persian’s methods of command and battle?
Q: “ They charged the Athenians with madness which must be fatal, seeing that they were few and were pressing forward, having neither cavalry nor archers,” (Herodutus, Histories, 6.112).
I: The Persians, realizing that the Athenians were few in number and only had hopites, began to attack them with vengeneance.
A: The Persian army was a combination of archers, calvaries, and infantries; they accused the Athenians for their madness as they were attacking forward in a run. Wearing garments painted like the fish scale, they were able to instill fear among their opponents. The Persians were throwing under-prepared men, who were poorly equipped with reed arrows, short spears, and shields of wiker work, to fight against the Greek. This showed how the Persians relied on numerical superiority to defeat their opponent.
Q: “ Dareios removed [Mardonius] from his command; and appointing other generals to command,” (Herodutus, Histories, 6.94).
I: Dareios prohibited Mardonius’ leadership and assigned another general to replace him.
A: After Dareios heard the defeat of Mardonius, he immediately gave his leadership to Datis and Artaphrenes, who were also Darieos’ family member; the commanders were confined only to the family members. The Persians were not as democratic as the Athenians in their way of commanding and ruling the empire. Instead of having a counsel of war, Dareios assumed the...