Research On Mammography Prevalence Amoung The Lower Class

1878 words - 8 pages

I did a sufficient research to find a reliable source to take data from. First, I considered contacting a hospital to take data about this project but I had some difficulties and couldn’t get data. Therefore I decided to find a reliable source that posts data to public. I found that American Cancer Society has the data I need. After a brief research, I found this source to be most reliable. I took data from their website where they post researches and investigations. The link to the source is given in the references part in the last section. The table below gives the mammography prevalence rate (%) within the Past Two Years by Age and Poverty Status in the US. The selected years are 1987-2010. And the selected age period is 40-49 years. The data is collected for three different groups: Poor, Near Poor and Non-Poor. Poor persons are defined as below the poverty threshold. Near poor persons have an income of 100%-199% of poverty threshold and non-poor persons have an income of over 400% of the poverty threshold. The data tables are given below:
Mammography Prevalence within Past Two Years (%)
Year Poor Near Poor Non-Poor
1987 (1) 19 18 44
1990 (3) 32 39 69
1991 (4) 33 44 70
1993 (5) 36 48 70
1994 (6) 43 48 70
1998 (10) 45 47 73
1999 (11) 51 53 77
2000 (12) 47 44 76
2003 (15) 51 54 72
2005 (17) 42 50 74
2008 (20) 47 47 73
2010 (22) 48 46 74
Table 1: Mammography Prevalence Rate
The data given in the table above (Table 1) is taken from American Cancer Society’s Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2013-2014 report . For each data set, we can easily say that the mammography prevalence rate increases over time for every poverty group. Also the steepest increase is found between 1987 and 1990. For the initial and final time, near poor individuals have lower mammography prevalence rate compared to poor individuals, which is an interesting result. Nevertheless, during the research process, near poor individuals have a higher prevalence rate. Non-poor individuals start with the highest prevalence rate and they have also had the highest prevalence rate at the final time. The graph of each poverty group will be created using the Logger Pro software and are given in the next chapter. In order to help me to perform further equations with smaller numbers, I renamed X-axis values as 1,3,4,5,6,10,11,12,15,17,20,22. These values are representative of year values in the table 1.
Graphs of Data Sets
Prevalence Graph of Non-Poor
Graph 1: Mammography Prevalence Rate of Non-Poor
The data is entered into the software and the graph is plotted using the Manual Fit button. It was clear that the fit line cannot be linear or quadratic I tried cubic quartic and quantic functions. The best fitting one was the cubic function so I chose that one and plotted it. The software automatically gives the function however I will manually find the function by choosing five distinctive points and solving these five values in a matrix. There are four unknown variables, so in order to find them,...

Find Another Essay On Research on Mammography Prevalence Amoung the Lower Class

The Oppression of the Lower Class by the California Department of Motor Vehicles

1696 words - 7 pages provide the lower class with lower registration fees. According to the San Diego Union-Tribune states that "Nearly 28 percent of the cars on the state's streets and highways are uninsured." Insurance Commissioner Chuck Quackenbush stated that this "underscores the obvious: People who can't afford insurance drive without it." High insurance rates coupled with high DMV fees are costing the State of California more money than reducing our fees

The Treatment of the Lower Class in Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho

1603 words - 6 pages critique (though a deeply divided one) of "aesthetics' patriarchal structure" (210). The question I want to pose is what does Radcliffe do for the labouring classes in Udolpho, how does she treat the lower class, another 'foil' to the construct of the (non-labouring) observer? The novel contains a number of devoted and kind servants - Annette, Theresa, Ludovico. Many kind peasants also offer their hospitality to Emily on several different

Raising Wages For The Lower Class Is Actually Good For The Economy

930 words - 4 pages Do a search online about raising the minimum wage and you will see any number of articles, and essays detailing why it shouldn’t be done. As detailed or as long winded as these articles are, they all have one central argument, and that is; if we raise the wages of the lower class, than the providers of goods and services will have to raise their prices, which in turn makes everything go up. To this I say bah humbug. It is asinine to think that a

Suitors and Courtship in the Lower Middle Class in Victorian Times

618 words - 2 pages Eligible Bachelors: Suitors and Courtship in the Lower Middle Class Trying for social advancement, single men and women of the lower middle and upper working classes sought to assume the Victorian middle class rituals of courtship and engagement. Accordingly, this aim joined with the poor finances key to these classes to lead to the complicated struggle of the bachelor. A Suitable Suitor To be considered an appropriate suitor to a lower

reflection on the class

725 words - 3 pages within news coverage of sexual assault blame is placed on the victim rather than the perpetrator. Using this research, my hypothesis is that the narratives used to cover Occupy Wall Street will mirror similar victim blaming narratives used in news coverage because of the highly negative view of Occupy Wall Street and assumptions about women’s role in public space. Due to the scattered and non-hierarchical organization of Occupy Wall Street, it

A report on the environmental state of the Mekong River - Class 11 - Research Paper

638 words - 3 pages Write a brief summary of the environmental issues affecting the Mekong region at the large-scale It has been proposed that 12 mainstream hydropower dams will be built on the Mekong River. However, these dams are likely to create a barrier that will severely impact the flow and hydrology of the river. Some potential impacts include the impact on the region’s natural monsoonal flood/drought cycles, blocking sediment and nutrient transfer

the effects branding has on a company - media class - research paper

962 words - 4 pages - Cola” was born and peace was brought back into the world. What might not have started out as a way to make buck, ended up promoting the company tremendously. Later, another example of good branding from coca- cola was in Australia when sales were down, so they did research on how they could make the product more presentable to the consumers and what they found out was australians really like their names on things to personalize it, therefore

Scientific research on masters topic - class - Research paper

3606 words - 15 pages ? ... Examples are natural sciences, social sciences. Practical sciences study applications of scientific knowledge, i.e. the application itself is a subject of scientific research. Examples are technical sciences, study of law, health sciences, management studies, pedagogical studies. Classification of sciences can also be based on the fact that different sciences study different forms of motion of matter. Motion is the mode of existence of matter. To be

"The Critic" Twain, a severe critic of the general public and its cruel, inane conventions, ridicules religion, lower class, and upper class, in "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn."

642 words - 3 pages The CriticMark Twain's novel, "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," pokes fun at society on all different levels. From dialect and word usage to religion and people's actions, many aspects of society are satirized. This criticism makes the drama in the book light instead of heavy. Twain, a severe critic of the general public and its cruel, inane conventions, ridicules the following three aspects of society; religion, the lower class, as well as

The Effect of Social Class on Education

980 words - 4 pages Tamburrino PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 4 The Effect of Social Class on EducationThe type of education a person receives is partially affected by the person's social class. For the most part, a person whose family is part of the working-class will not receive the same education as a person whose family is part of the upper-class. A child coming from an upper-class family will, most of the time, receive a better education, through high school, than a

Obamacare's Heavy Toll on the Middle Class

816 words - 4 pages annually, $200,000 today is the same as $152,000 in income in 2020 and just over $100,000 in 2030. So these provisions of the law are really massive back-door tax increases on the middle class. And they will destroy jobs for the middle class too because the tax will lower the incomes of thousands of small business owners who pay their business taxes on the individual schedule. These entrepreneurs will have little choice but to downsize and employ

Similar Essays

Lives Of The Lower Class Essay

3255 words - 13 pages The lives of the lower class people as depicted by Apuleius are different in a multitude of ways. There is a "lower class" status as many people are correctly labeled throughout the story, but there are many different types of lower class citizens. There are slaves, freed ex-slaves, farmers, and just really poor people who are forced to fight for survival. All of these types of people can be correctly identified as "lower class." Some lower

The Powerlessness Of The Lower Class

1738 words - 7 pages their poor circumstances, which leads to the deaths in the plays. The drum major does not understand that lower class people could possess some dignity and beats Woyzeck up without a moment’s regret for taking his wife away; “I’ll rip the tongue from y’r throat and strangle you with it” (Büchner 69). Woyzeck gets humiliated one more time and he leads his frustrations out on Marie, who prostituted herself due to his lack of income. Woyzeck murders

The Education Of The Lower Class: A Perpetual Problem

1344 words - 5 pages situation causes a loop where the children of the educated get educated while those without are never given the opportunity to receive. Class for the purpose of this paper is the concept that those who are better off are of what can be considered to be upper class and those that lack financial means are of the lower class. Mantsios says that there is an absence of discussion in reference to the distinctions of classes (697). In a study

Lower And Upper Class In The United States

2766 words - 11 pages view. one person may think one person is attractive, but another may not think the same way. A person pursues someone who is equally attract or even more attractive than oneself. However, that is hard to measure since it varies from what one deems attractive than another. On the other hand, money and class can be measured quite easily. The range is as follows with annual income: Poverty at $18,000 to $23,050, lower class at $23,050 to $32,500