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Research On Mathematical Calculations Of Bonds Betwen Amino Acid Residues And Co2 Molecules

726 words - 3 pages

Cundari et al presented a powerful computational prediction system based on mathematical calculations of bonds between amino acid residues and CO2 molecule (Cundari et al. 2009). In their study, binding energies for CO2 and amino acid residues of Rubisco active site differ between different enzyme species that belongs to different organisms. It has been suggested that most of the hydrogen bonding in α-helices goes toward stabilizing the tightly coiled helix in loop 6 of Rubisco, whereas in contrast the edge of a β-sheet is open to hydrogen bonding, the binding energies are shown in table 1 (Cundari et al. 2009). Cundari also compared the residues binding energy to CO2 with other molecules such as methan, phenol, and benzen. Interestingly, amino acids with aromatic side-chain were found to have similar binding energies despite the difference in their structure. Other than Rubisco, molecular dynamic studies have shown that hydrophobic residues in the active sites of CO2 binding enzymes has similar characteristics in terms of using a specific ion and electrostatic forces. Domsic et al studied the entrapment of CO2 molecule in the active site of human Carbonic Anhydrase II, which shares the same mechanics of CO2 binding with Rubisco (Domsic et al. 2008), and found that the formation and release of the final product depends on the free energy of the amino acid residues, suggesting that altering or substituting the side-chains could alter the enzyme affinity and specificity in the same time. The acid/base interactions between the side-chains and substrate CO2 molecule are the major effective forces in determining enzyme specificity and affinity more than hydro-philicity/phobicity forces (Cundari et al. 2009). Therefore, using charged amino acid residues in the active site of Rubisco, where substrate CO2 binds, is expected to change the overall kinetics of Rubisco.
The first discovery of RCA enzyme was in the mutant Arabidopsis rca in early 1980s (Portis and Salvucci 2002) that came from screening for Photorespiration defects under high/low CO2 growth conditions. Since the discovery, RCA was studied in detail through mutagenesis and screening studies until it was known to be responsible for the removal of the tightly bound sugar phosphate from Rubisco active site through ATP hydrolysis...

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